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Ecology. What is Ecology?. Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their surroundings. Biosphere. Made up of land, water, and air or atmosphere. Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in the biosphere make up ecology.

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what is ecology
What is Ecology?

Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their surroundings.

biosphere
Biosphere
  • Made up of land, water, and air or atmosphere.
  • Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in the biosphere make up ecology.
species
Species
  • A group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
  • Example: frogs
  • Non-example: mules
question
Question?
  • Why isn’t a mule an example of a species?
population
Population
  • A group of organisms that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
  • Example: group of frogs
community
Community
  • A group of different populations that live together in a defined area.
  • Example: frogs, fish, and plants (in a pond)
ecosystem
Ecosystem
  • Collection of all organisms that live in a particular place, together with the non-living or physical environment.
  • Example: pond
biome
Biome
  • A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.
  • Example: desert, tundra, rain forest.
what does bio mean
What does BIO mean?

LIFE!!!

  • biotic factors – any living thing that effects an organism.
  • abiotic factors – physical or nonliving things that shape on ecosystem. (weather, ph, soil)
niche
Niche
  • The environment an organism lives in and how it uses that environment.
autotrophs
Autotrophs
  • Auto – self
  • Troph – nutrition/energy
  • Organisms that make their own food for energy.
  • Examples: plants, some bacteria
  • 2 types:
    • Chemoautotroph – make own food using chemicals.
    • Photoautotroph – make own food using light.
  • Also called PRODUCERS
heterotrophs
Heterotrophs
  • Hetero – different
  • Troph – nutrition/energy
  • Organisms that rely on other organisms for food or energy (eat other organisms)
  • Also called CONSUMERS
  • Examples are….
carnivore
Carnivore
  • Organisms that eat only meat.
  • Example: fox
herbivore
Herbivore
  • Organisms that eat only plants.
  • Example: grasshoppers
omnivore
Omnivore
  • Organisms that eat both plants and animals.
  • Example: bird
detritivore
Detritivore
  • Organisms that eat dead or decaying matter.
  • Example: vulture
decomposer
Decomposer
  • Organisms that break down dead or decaying matter externally, then take it in.
  • Example: fungus
food chain
Food Chain

carnivore

Heterotroph/3rd level consumer

Heterotroph/2nd level consumer

omnivore

herbivore

Heterotroph/1st level consumer

Autotroph/producer

trophic levels
Trophic Levels
  • Energy levels in a food chain or food web.
  • Each trophic level receive 10% of the previous trophic level’s energy.
  • 10 percent!!!!!
food chain1
Food Chain

0.1%

carnivore

Heterotroph/3rd level consumer

1%

Heterotroph/2nd level consumer

omnivore

Trophic levels

10%

herbivore

Heterotroph/1st level consumer

100%

Autotroph/producer

symbiotic relationships
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Symbiosis – any relationship between two organisms that live closely together.
  • 5 types……
predation
Predation
  • An interaction where one organism hunts and kills another.
    • Predator – hunter
    • Prey – food
  • Example: lion hunting gazelle
mutualism
Mutualism
  • A relationship where both organisms benefit.
  • Example: bees and flowers.
commensalism
Commensalism
  • A relationship where one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed.
  • Example: a bird and a tree
parasitism
Parasitism
  • A relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
  • Example: flea & dog
competition
Competition
  • A relationship where one organism competes with another for food, shelter, mate, etc.