Nucleic acids replication and transcription
Download
1 / 52

nucleic acids, replication, and transcription - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 83 Views
  • Uploaded on

nucleic acids, replication, and transcription. By: Danielle Slatt , Allison Franzoia, Steven Reusser and Lauren Acheson. nucleic acids, replication, and transcription. Agenda  21.1 Components of Nucleic Acids 21.1 The Structure of DNA 21.3 DNA Replication

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' nucleic acids, replication, and transcription' - shaeleigh-cross


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Nucleic acids replication and transcription
nucleic acids, replication, and transcription

By: Danielle Slatt, Allison Franzoia, Steven Reusser and Lauren Acheson


nucleic acids, replication, and transcription

Agenda

  • 21.1 Components of Nucleic Acids

  • 21.1 The Structure of DNA

  • 21.3 DNA Replication

  • 21.3 Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • 21.4 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

  • 21.5 The Flow of Genetic Information

  • 21.6 Transcription: RNA Synthesis

  • 21.7 The Genetic Code




Nucleotides
Nucleotides

  • Repeating structures or monomers of nucleic acids

  • Made up of a heterocyclic base, sugar, and phosphate






Primary structure of dna
Primary Structure of DNA

DNA molecules are among the largest molecules known containing between 1 to 100 million nucleotide units


Secondary structure of dna
Secondary Structure of DNA

  • Watson and Crick

    • Greatest discoveries of modern biology and earned Nobel Prize

    • Analysis of DNA from different forms of life revealed interesting pattern

      • Relative amounts of bases varied from one organism to another BUT in all DNA the percentages of adenine and thymine were always equal to each other as were the percentages of guanine and cytosine.



Complementary base pairing
Complementary Base Pairing

  • Double helix is held together by hydrogen boning between bases that extend inward from the sugar-phosphate backbone

  • Adenine ALWAYS hydrogen bonds to Thymine

  • Guanine ALWAYS hydrogen bonds to Cytosine


Learning check
Learning Check…

Name complementary bases

DNA or RNA?


Answers
Answers…

Complementary bases

DNA  Thymine


Dna replication
DNA Replication

Allison Franzoia


Dna cell
DNA  Cell

Base Pairs

Chromos-omes

DNA

Histones

Cells


Dna cell1
DNA Cell

Histones

DNA

Chromosomes


Replication
Replication

Conservative replication

  • Conservative replication produces an exact copy of a parent DNA molecule

  • Semiconservative replication produces DNA molecules containing one strand from theparentand a new strand that is complementary to the parent strand

Semiconservative replication


Steps of Replication

  • DNA is unwound from histone protein group. This process is catalyzed by the enzyme helicase.

    • As helicase moves down the strand it breaks the hydrogen bonds creating a Y shaped separation called the replication fork.

DNA Unwinds

3’

5’


Steps of replication
Steps of Replication

  • The old, freshly exposed nucleotide strands are replicated simultaneously, in opposite directions

    • Leading strands is synthesized continuously, toward replication fork

    • Lagging strand is synthesized in fragments, away from replication fork

Helicase

DNA Unwinds


Steps of Replication

  • DNA Polymerase links new strands to old strands, however it only works in the 5’-3’ direction

Leading strand replicating in 5’-3’ direction


Steps of Replication

  • Lagging strand forming away from the fork, is synthesized as a series of Okazaki fragments bound together

Okazaki fragment


Steps of Replication

  • Okazaki fragments are spliced together by DNA ligase , result is two DNA double-helical molecules that are identical.


Polymerase Chain Reaction

PREP

PROCESS

  • Add small amount target DNA added to test tube

  • Add buffered solution containing DNA polymerase, cofactor MgCl2 (needed by polymerase to activate the 4 nucleotide building blocks and primers).

    • Primers are short polynucleotide segments that will bind the separated DNA and serve as starting point for new growth, to get this you must:

  • Heat to unwind (94°C - 96°C)

  • Cool (50°C-65°C) to allow primer to H bond to the now separated strands target DNA

  • Heat again (72°C), DNA polymerase synthesizes new strands


Ribonucleic acid rna
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

The Flow of Genetic Information

Steven Reusser


DNA

  • There is a specific DNA gene for every protein in the body (about 23,000 genes human genome --- of which, about 20,000 are protein genes)

  • Does not direct synthesis of of carbohydrates, lipids, or other non-protein substances essential for life.

  • Other essential material is manufactured by our cells through reactions made possible by enzymes (a type of protein)

  • Information stored in DNA determine every characteristic of the living organism.



Uracil vs thymine and rna double helical structure
Uracil vs. Thymine and RNA double helical structure

Thymine

(Clark, 2011)

Uracil

(2001)


Different forms of rna
Different forms of RNA

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA): - carrier of genetic information from the DNA of the cell nucleus to cytoplasm were synthesis takes place.

  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): - 80-85% of total RNA of cell located in cytoplasm where exist in ribosomes.

    • Ribosome: a subcellular particle (organelle) which serves as site for protein synthesis.

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA): - an amino acids specific molecule which deliver amino acids to the site of protein synthesis.

    • Amino acids: the building blocks of proteins.


Comparing different forms of rna
Comparing Different forms of RNA

  • Three different forms of RNA:

    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

    • Transfer RNA (tRNA)

    • Messenger RNA (mRNA)

(Seager, Slabaugh, 2011)


Trna structure
tRNA Structure

  • tRNA folds back on its self creating a “t” shape

    • Hydrogen bonds between complementary bases

    • Loop regions with no hydrogen bonding

  • Anticodon: three-base complementary sequence and site of attachment to to mRNA

  • 3’ end of tRNA: site of amino acid attachment via an ester bond.


Trna structure continued
…tRNA Structure continued…

Site of attachment for amino acid

Ester bond

Figure 21.5

(Seager, Slabaugh, 2011)

An “activated” tRNA: possesses an amino acid and is ready to participate in protein synthesis.

U G C

Site of attachment to mRNA

(2009)


Central dogma of molecular biology
Central Dogma of molecular biology

---- The well established process by which genetic information stored in DNA molecules is expressed in the structure of synthesized proteins.

(2010)


Transcription and translation
Transcription and translation

  • Transcription: The transfer of genetic information from a DNA molecule to a molecule of mRNA

    • mRNA carries the information to the cellular cytoplasm

  • Translation: in the cytoplasm, ribosomes (rRNA) and tRNA interact with the information carried by mRNA to form an amino acid sequence or protein.



transcription: mRNA synthesis

Central Dogma

DNA

RNA

PROTEIN

transcription

translation


transcription: mRNA synthesis

RNA Polymerase

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_initiation1.svg


transcription: mRNA synthesis

RNA transcription / elongation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_elongation1.svg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_termination1.svg


transcription: mRNA synthesis

mRNA processing

ENZYMES CUT AND SPLICE

intron a segment of a eukaryotic DNA molecule that carries no codes for amino acids

(the function of introns is not yet understood; it is an area of active research)

exon a segment of a eukaryotic DNA molecule that is coded for amino acids

http://www.lionden.com/dna.htm


The

Genetic

Code

Lauren Acheson


the genetic code

from DNA to polypeptides

NUCLEUS

CYTOPLASM

http://1mkturin.wordpress.com/2009/03/27/dna/


the genetic code

characteristics of codons

chart is based on Table 21.3: General Characteristics of the Genetic Code, textbook page 656


the genetic code

codon chart


the genetic code

transcription errors


central dogma

from DNA to protein

mRNA processing

(remove introns, splice exons together)

DNA

RNA

PROTEIN

transcription

translation

RNA codons to

amino acids sequence


nucleic acids, replication, and transcription

summary

  • 21.1 Components of Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA, contain monomers of nucleotides (sugar, phosphate, and base) linked together

  • 5 Common Based: Pyrimidine (Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine) & Purine (Adenine and Guanine)

  • 21.1 The Structure of DNA

  • Primary Structure: Nucleotides joined together forming phosphate sugar backbone; covalent bonds

  • Secondary Structure: Bases from primary strand hydrogen bond with bases from complementary strand

  • 21.3 DNA Replication

  • Replication: Creation of two identical daughter strands from a double-helix parent strand.

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction mimics replication at rapid pace- good for studying diseases and artifacts.

  • 21.4 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

  • RNA structure: Single stranded, double helical loop regions, contains a Uracil base instead of Thymine 

  • Forms of RNA: rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA

  • 21.5 The Flow of Genetic Information

  • Central Dogma: the process involving transcription and translation in which information stored in DNA is expressed into proteins

  • 21.6 Transcription: RNA Synthesis

  • RNA Polymerase generates a hnRNA copy of a gene in the 5’-3’ direction along a template strand of DNA

  • Processing: the hnRNA transcript must be enzymatically cut and spliced to make mRNA

  • 21.7 The Genetic Code

  • Codon: a sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotide base pairs; specific and degenerate

  • Transcription Error: errors in transcription can lead to changes in protein synthesis


Works cited slides 3 15 danielle slatt
Works Cited (slides 3-15; Danielle Slatt)

TEXT

  • DNA: The Molecular Basics and Techniques for Analysis. (n.d.). UDL Book Builder. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://bookbuilder.cast.org/view.php?op=view&book=40654&page=7

  • Seagar, S. L., & Slabaugh, M. R. (2010). Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry (7 ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

    IMAGES

  • James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin | Chemical Heritage Foundation. (n.d.). Homepage of the Chemical Heritage Foundation | Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/chemistry-in-history/themes/biomolecules/dna/watson-crick-wilkins-franklin.aspx

  • Base Pairing. (n.d.). Washington DC High-Speed Internet, Digital Cable TV and Home Phone Service Provider - RCN. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/B/BasePairing.html

  • Continuing with DNA « Ms Turin. (n.d.). Ms Turin. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://1mkturin.wordpress.com/2009/03/27/dna/

  • DNA. (n.d.). Lion Den. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.lionden.com/dna.htm

  • DNA: The Molecular Basics and Techniques for Analysis. (n.d.). UDL Book Builder. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://bookbuilder.cast.org/view.php?op=view&book=40654&page=7

  • Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid |dna | Tutorvista.com. (n.d.). Tutorvista.com - Online Tutoring, Homework Help for Math, Science, English from Best Online Tutor. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/cellular-macromolecules/deoxyribose-nucleic-acid.php

  • File:Simple transcription initiation1.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_initiation1.svg

  • Freudenrich, C., & Ph.D.. (n.d.). HowStuffWorks "DNA Structure". HowStuffWorks "Science". Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/cellular-microscopic/dna1.htm

  • Genetics 101. (n.d.). Webs - Make a free website, get free hosting. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.freewebs.com/genetics37/genetics101.htm


  • Nucleic Acids. (n.d.). (2010, July 2). Michigan State University : Department of Chemistry. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/nucacids.htm

  • Genetic Science Learning Center (2011, January 24) Tour of the Basics. Learn.Genetics. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/tour/

  • Genetic Science Learning Center (2011, January 24) Cell Size and Scale. Learn.Genetics. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/

  • Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations. (n.d.). Wiley: Home . Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.wiley.com/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/replication/replication.htm

  • Genetics. (2011, July 19). Genetics-Cell Universe. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from https://confluence.crbs.ucsd.edu/display/CS/Genetics

  • DNALearningCenter. (2010, March 22). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - YouTube . YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Retrieved December 1, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KoLnIwoZKU

  • Seagar, S. L., & Slabaugh, M. R. (2010). Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry (7 ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.


  • Clark, J. (2011, June 19). transcription - from DNA to RNA. chemguide: helping you to understand Chemistry - Main Menu. Retrieved November 27, 2011, from http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/aminoacids/dna3.htm

  • DNA Structure. (2001, March 25). www.uci.edu. Retrieved November 26, 2011, from www.uic.edu/classes/phys/phys461/phys450/ANJUM04/

  • Nucleic Acids. (n.d.). (2010, July 2).Michigan State University :: Department of Chemistry. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/nucacids.htm

  • Protein Synthesis and Sorting. (2009, April 20). Winona State University. Retrieved November 26, 2011, from course1.winona.edu/sberg/308s09/Lec-note/Translation.htm

  • Seager, S. L., & Slabaugh, M. R. (2010). 21. Chemistry for today: general, organic, and biochemistry (5th ed., pp. 636-665). Belmont, CA: Thomson-Brooks/Cole.


  • Text

  • Nester, et. al. Microbiology: A Human Perspective, 6th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2009.

  • Seagar, S. L., & Slabaugh, M. R. (2010). Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry (7 ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

  • Images

  • slide 41

  • File:Simple transcription initiation1.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_initiation1.svg

  • slide 42

  • File:Simple transcription elongation1.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_elongation1.svg

  • File:Simple transcription termination1.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_termination1.svg

  • slide 43

  • DNA. (n.d.). Lion Den. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.lionden.com/dna.htm

  • slide 45

  • Continuing with DNA « Ms Turin. (n.d.). Ms Turin. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://1mkturin.wordpress.com/2009/03/27/dna/

  • all other images are original


ad