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Nucleic Acids. Let’s Review!. What is a macromolecule? What are the four kinds of organic molecules? What are nucleic acids made of?. - A large organic molecule (made of carbon!). - Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. - Phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base.

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let s review
Let’s Review!
  • What is a macromolecule?
  • What are the four kinds of organic molecules?
  • What are nucleic acids made of?

- A large organic molecule (made of carbon!)

- Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids

- Phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base

slide3

Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleic Acids are the chemical link between generations dating back to the beginning of life on earth.
slide4

Nucleic Acids

  • A nucleic acid is a complex macromolecule that stores information in cells in the form of a code.
slide5

Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleic acids are made of long chains of nucleotides.
  • Nucleotides are made of three components:

1. sugar

2. phosphate group

3. nitrogen base

slide6

Nucleic Acids

  • Examples of nucleic acids are :

1. DNA

2. RNA

slide7

DNA

DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid

its components are:

1. deoxyribose (sugar)

2. phosphate group

3. nitrogen base

the components and structure of dna
The Components and Structure of DNA

There are four kinds of bases in in DNA:

  • adenine
  • guanine
  • cytosine
  • thymine
slide9

DNA

  • James Watson and Francis Crick proposed that DNA has a specific pairing between nitrogen bases:

Adenine (A) – Thymine (T)

Guanine (G) – Cytosine (C)

A and G are purines (AGgies eat Purina)

C and T are pyrimidines

slide11

DNA

  • Watson and Crick also said the paired nitrogen bases formed two long strands of nucleotides that compliment each other.
slide12

DNA

  • Nitrogen Bases are connected

between sugars and phosphates

  • They declared, “This structure is

a “double helix”.

slide14

DNA

  • DNA forms chromosomes, units of genetic information which pass from parent to offspring.

DNA is wound into structures called chromosomes during cell division (prophase)

what are chromosomes
What are chromosomes???

Nucleotides make upDNA

DNAwinds into Chromatin

Chromatin condenses intoChromosomes

Chromosomes contain Genes

Genes are sections of DNA

DNA is made of nucleotides

Chromosomes contain

Instructions for making

YOU!!!

slide16

DNA

  • If you unraveled all your chromosomes from all of your cells and laid out the DNA end to end, the strands would stretch from the Earth to the Moon about 6,000 times.
slide17

RNA

  • RNA has a different sugar than DNA
  • RNA = ribonucleic acid
  • It’s components are :

1. ribose (sugar)

2. phosphate group

3. nitrogen base

slide18

RNA

  • It also has different bases than DNA

adenine --- uracil

cytosine --- guanine

  • RNA is also single stranded, not double stranded like DNA.
slide21

DNA Replication

I. Why Must DNA Replicate? 

  • Every time a cell divides, it must first make a copy of it’s chromosomes.
  • Therefore, each cell

can have a complete set

of chromosomes.

what are chromosomes1
What are chromosomes???

Nucleotides make upDNA

DNAwinds into Chromatin

Chromatin condenses intoChromosomes

Chromosomes contain Genes

Genes are sections of DNA

DNA is made of nucleotides

Chromosomes contain

Instructions for making

YOU!!!

slide23

DNA Replication

  • Without replication, species could not survive and individuals could not successfully grow and reproduce.
slide24

DNA Replication

II. How DNA Replicates

  • DNA is a molecule composed of TWO strands, each consisting of a sequence of nucleotides.
  • The order of the nitrogen bases on one strand mandates the sequence of bases on the complementary strand.
slide25

DNA Replication

If you know the bases on one strand, you can predict which bases will occur on the complementary strand.

A -----

G -----

T -----

C -----

C -----

C -----

T -----

During Replication each strand serves as a template to create a new strand.

T

C

A

G

G

G

A

slide26

Steps in Replication

III. Steps In Replication

1) Enzymes break down the hydrogen bonds between the two DNA strands, unzipping the molecule

slide27

Steps in Replication

2) As the DNA unzips, free nucleotides (from surroundings in the nucleus) bond to the single strands by base pairing (A-T, G-C)

slide28

Steps in Replication

3) Another Enzyme bonds the new nucleotides into a chain

** The result of this process is the formation of TWO DNA molecules, each identical to the original molecule.

Replication! Rah,Rah, Rah!

dna replication
DNA Replication

New Strand

Original strand

Nitrogen Bases

Growth

Growth

Replication Fork

Replication Fork

DNA Polymerase

slide32

Reflect and Review

1. What are the two types of nucleic acids?

2. What are the three components of a nucleotide?

3. What are the similarities between DNA and RNA? What are the differences?

4. Describe the process of DNA replication.

5. Why does a DNA molecule undergo replication?