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Vitamins. organic substances in natural foods produced within the body - synthesized by microbes stabled horses may need supplemental vitamins vitamin A vision cellular differentiation bone remodeling carotene destroyed by heat, light, wet hay, storage may want to supplement in winter.

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vitamins
Vitamins
  • organic substances in natural foods
  • produced within the body - synthesized by microbes
  • stabled horses may need supplemental vitamins
  • vitamin A
    • vision
    • cellular differentiation
    • bone remodeling
    • carotene
      • destroyed by heat, light, wet hay, storage
    • may want to supplement in winter
vitamin a
Vitamin A
  • deficiency
    • poor bone development
    • poor night vision
    • extreme deficiency
      • excessive tear production
      • infertility in mares
    • feeds supplemented 10,000 iu/kg
      • toxic 5X
slide3
vitamin D
    • maintain calcium:phosphorus homeostasis
      • blocking agents
    • synthesized in body with sunlight
    • deficiency of Vitamin D
      • depressed blood Ca draws Ca from bone
      • lameness
      • bone fractures
    • requirements not established
    • deficiency and toxicity same symptoms
vitamin e
Vitamin E
  • antioxidant value
    • related with selenium
  • deficiencies associated with myopathies in foals
  • requirements not established
    • ? - hard-working horses may have muscular problems with deficiency
  • destroyed with oxidation
    • moisture and storage
    • moldy hay
    • ground grains
  • deficiency
    • neurological diseases
slide5
B complex vitamins
    • adequate in forages and synthesized by bacteria in LI
    • exceptions
      • thiamine
        • role in energy metabolism
        • heavy exercise may be marginal deficiency
        • deficiency
          • ? lack of coordination in hind end
          • heart problems
      • folic acid
        • decrease with months of intense exercise
        • decrease with prolonged stabling
        • give access to pasture
slide6
B12
    • contains cobalt
    • deficient areas
      • deficient in ruminants
      • ? anemia and decreased RBC in horses
  • biotin
    • water soluble
    • availability
      • wheat, barley, milo: low
      • oats : medium
      • corn : available
    • deficiency
      • cracked hooves
        • 15 mg/day
slide7
water
    • most important nutrient
    • lack of H2O more serious than any other nutrient
    • lost in urine, feces, sweat, evaporation
    • increased water consumption with hay and grain
    • idle horse drinks 28 liters/day - cool weather
    • “ “ “ 80 liters/day - hot weather
    • increased water intake with exercise
      • 3 % of BW loss of water affects performance
      • 5-10% of BW loss during endurance race
ration formulation
Ration Formulation
  • ration dependent on level of activity
    • idle horse - good roughage and salt/mineral block
      • 450 kg horse needs about 15,000 kcal/day energy
    • exercising horse - roughage and concentrate
      • energy increase usually fulfills protein, vitamin and mineral increase, except calcium
    • increase energy intake by adding fat
slide9
“calorie” - = 1 kilocalorie
    • amount of energy required as heat to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1o C
    • 1000 kcal in 1 megacalorie (Mcal)
    • DE and TDN
    • % BW
      • .5 % BW/day as roughage
sprinting vs endurance
Sprinting Vs. Endurance
  • grain:hay ratio varies
  • sprint
    • maximum hay/day 1.5% BW
      • hay retains a lot of water in the gut
  • endurance
    • advantageous to feed hay - 1.5 to 2% BW
      • retains water
    • add fat (up to 15 % of total ration)
day of competition
Day of Competition
  • H2O available at all times
  • endurance/eventing
    • feed hay and grain 4 hours prior to competition
      • glucose and insulin stabilize
      • continuous water
      • electrolytes
  • sprinting sports
    • also 4 hours prior to competition
glycogen loading
Glycogen Loading
  • enhance performance by delaying glycogen depletion
  • manipulation of diet in humans
    • exhaustive exercise - low CHO diet
    • light exercise - high CHO diet
      • replenish glycogen over normal resting stores
  • horse
    • conditioned horse has large amounts of glycogen
    • high CHO diet - laminitis or tying-up