Necessary for Growth Maintenance Reproduction Vitamins
Two Types Fat Soluble: A,D,E,K Excesses stored in body and can reach dangerous levels Water Soluble: B & C • Excess Excreted
VITAMIN A Functions: • Helps night vision • Growth of teeth and bones • Needed for healthy skin tissue Sources : The vitamin itself, butter, fish oil, spinach, whole milk cheeses, milk, deep yellow and green vegetables, egg yolk
Deficiencies: • Eyes will be sensitive to light • Rough skin susceptible to disease • Night blindness can occur • Stunted growth Excesses: • Seldom happens • Fatigue • Headaches • Nausea • Vomiting
VITAMIN D: SUNSHINE VITAMIN • Compounds in the skin changed to vitamin D when exposed to the sun • 5-10 min/day 2x a week • helps the body use calcium and phosphorus • Necessary to build bones and teeth by promoting growth and mineralization of bones and teeth
Vitamin D Sources: Canned fish, tuna, sardines, fish oil, fish eggs, fortified milk Deficiencies: • rickets – bone disease – poor • children • can’t use calcium and phosphorus • weak disease • bow legs Excesses: • calcium deposits in soft tissue -blood vessels, kidneys • weakness • nausea • high blood pressure
Vitamin E: Antioxidant • helps prevent the breakdown of a molecule when it combines with oxygen • Acts as a preservative in some foods – oils Functions : • cures skin problems • slows the aging process • makes hair grow
Vitamin E Deficiencies: • Neurological connections can be affected Excesses • Stored in fat • Nothing negative discovered
Vitamin E • Found in many foods such as leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds such as sunflower seeds, beans, fruits, corn oils
Vitamin K This is the vitamin for coagulation and clotting of the blood Found in leafy vegetables and oils.
Vitamin K • Deficiencies: • Excessive bleeding and bruising • Excess • Too much can lead to liver concerns with jaundice symptoms showing up.
Vitamin C • 3OO years ago – British sailors had a greater chance of dying from scurvy • Officers of the ships rarely had it – ate better food, fresh food • Sailors fed cheaply – salted meats, rancid butter, dried beans • Lemons added to diet – scurvy cured “limeys”
Vitamin C Functions • helps produce collagen • makes colds and infections less severe • aids in the absorption of iron • maintains healthy bones, skin and teeth
Vitamin C • Deficiencies: • Skin bruises easily and sores can develop • Teeth loosen • Gums bleed • Bones break easily • Joints swell and are sore • More susceptible to disease • Excesses: • Passes through the kidneys – increases risk of developing kidney stones • High levels more difficult to detect diabetes, liver disease, and other health problems.
Vitamin C sources • Citrus fruits, cantaloupe, strawberries, broccoli, green peppers • Vitamin C destroyed by heat or air • Cooking food – use little water and short time
The “B”’s • Thiamin • Riboflavin • Niacin • Standard practice formula to enrich bread products • 8 total B Vitamins: B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic Acid), B6, B7 (Biotin), B12,Folate
Vitamin B’s • In the body, B-vitamins become enzymes which are needed for metabolism – chemical change that takes place in the body.
Problems with lack of B vitamins • B-vitamins were discovered in the late 1800’s in the Far East • Berberi – common disease, paralyzed, diet of white rice in the poor people (thiamin) • Pellagra – 1900’s leading cause of death in US (niacin) • Disease of the 4-D’s Dermatitis- inflamed skin Dementia – brain disorders Diarrhea Death
Problems with Vitamin B • Study of children in orphanage in Mississippi – • Lacked eggs, milk, and meat in their diet. • Water soluble – excess becomes part of body waste
THIAMINE - B1 • FUNCTIONS: • Needed for normal digestion • Prevents irritability • Keeps the nervous system healthy • Helps body release energy • SOURCES: • Pork, nuts, breads and cereals, enriched and whole grain products
RIBOFLAVIN B-2 • FUNCTIONS: • Helps cells use oxygen • Prevents scaly, greasy areas around the mouth and nose • Needed to help break down carbohydrates and proteins. SOURCES: • Milk, eggs, liver, cheese, enriched and whole grain products
Vitamin B-6 FUNCTIONS: • Helps regenerate red blood cells • Helps breakdown carbohydrates, proteins and fats • Needed for proper growth • Maintains body functions SOURCES: • Liver, whole grain cereals, muscle meat, potatoes, green vegetables, corn
Vitamin B-12 FUNCTIONS: • Protects against anemia • Helps produce red blood cells • Helps the functioning of bone marrow, nervous system and digestive tract • SOURCES: • Eggs, fish, liver, milk, shellfish, organ meat
Vitamin B-3 NIACIN FUNCTIONS: • Helps to keep the nervous system healthy • Helps to keep the digestive tract healthy • Helps the cells use the nutrients • Can help with Cholesterol care • SOURCES: • Enriched and whole grain products, peanuts, peanut butter, milk, poultry, meat, fish
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid • Anti Stress Vitamin: • Manufactured in the intestinal flora • Role in hormone (Cortisone) regulation by supporting the adrenal gland. • Helps metabolism of fat • Healthy skin, muscles, nerves
Pantothenic Acid (B5) • Deficiencies: • Fatigue • Nausea • Tingling hands • Depression • Excesses: • Nothing major but some have teeth sensitivity
B7 Biotin • Necessary for cell growth • Metabolism of fatty acids • Strong hair and nails
Vitamin B7 Biotin • Deficiencies: • Rare but can be fatal • Egg whites (raw) over time interfere with absorbtion • Excesses: • Excessive sweating and urination
Folate Vitamin B9 • Needed to prevent anemia and birth defects • May reduce stroke • Found in beans, vegetables (green), avocados
Folate • Deficiencies: • Loss of appetite • Depression • Headaches • Excess: • May contribute to tumor initiation
Minerals Minerals are not complex molecules they are simple elements but their work in the body is complex • 24 minerals have been found in the human body • Minerals make up 4% of the body’s weight • A shortage of one mineral affects the work of the others CALCIUM FUNCTIONS: • Helps build teeth and bones • Helps the blood to clot • Makes the muscles work • Helps change food into energy • Helps cells use vitamins SOURCES: Milk, dairy products, fish eaten with the bones
Phosphorus • Works with calcium to build strong bones. Found in proteins so rarely a deficiency.
Magnesium • Makes protein and builds strong bones (structure) . • Found in many foods including nuts, yogurt, beans, dairy products, bananas, and raisins.
Sodium,Chloride, & Potassium • Help with the balance of fluids in cells • Electrolyte mineral: Electrolytes pull fluid as they move so they keep cells healthy and fluids balanced. • Why Gatorade when vomiting? • Regulate blood pressure • Chloride balances acidity in stomach • Potassium helps muscles, including heart • Sodium: helps muscles and nerves work, regulate blood pressure, (What is Hypertension?)
Trace Minerals: Needed in amounts less than 100 mg/day • Obtained from food • Iron: Meat, dried fruits, dark leafy vegetables, dried legumes, enriched bread products • Zinc: Animal protein and organ meat, eggs, peas and beans, dairy • Copper: Whole grain, seafood, variety meats, dried legumes, seeds • Iodine: Saltwater fish, iodized salt • Selenium: Whole grains, vegetable (soils affects this) fish, shellfish, variety meat, meat • Fluoride: Water supplies when added
Trace Minerals • Iron: essential for hemoglobin (carries Oxygen to cells) • Zinc: Aids in Immune system, aids enzymatic functions. Lack of: depression, poor growth and appetite, dry skin, loss of taste • Copper: hemoglobin formation, collagen formation, enzyme function • Iodine: Stored in Thyroid, too much or too little can cause thyroid problems and mental retardation in fetus. • Selenium: Antioxidant. Protect against certain cancers, maintains muscles, red blood cells, hair and nails • Fluoride: Prevents tooth decay and strengthens bones.