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Chapter 3- Cells - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 3- Cells

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  1. Chapter 3- Cells Ch. 3.1- The Cellular Level of Organization & Intro to cells

  2. Target #1- I can describe cells • The cell is the structural and functional unit of an organism • Smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life • Smallest organism is unicellular • Largest organisms are multicelluar • Classified as prokaryotic or eukaryotic

  3. Diversity of cells is illustrated by the many types in the human body • Muscle cells • Nerve cells • Skin cells • Basic components of cells are the same, regardless of specialization • Organelles: tiny, specialized structures which perform specific cellular functions Target #2- I can explain the diversity and similarities between cells

  4. Target #3- I can identify the scientists involved with the early discoveries of the cell • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to use microscopes to view cells • Robert Hooke was the first to use the term cell • The structure reminded him of the cells at a monestary • Matthias Schleiden stated that plants are composed of cells • Theodor Schwann stated that animals were made up of living units called cells • Rudolf Virchow discovered that all cells came from pre-existing cells

  5. Target #4- I can state the cell theory • Cell theory • Cells are the basic units of life • All organisms are made up of cells • All cells come from pre-existing cells

  6. Target #5- I can explain how cell size and surface area affect the performance of a cell • Cell size • Cells need to be small to maintain optimum function • If a cell is too large waste products and products necessary for function can not be efficiently brought in or removed • The highest functioning cells are small in size, but have a significant surface area • Surface area • The larger the cell, the lower the surface area to volume ratio • The volume increases by size of the sides • Height x width x depth • The surface area increases by the square of the sides & number of sides • Height x width x 6

  7. There are many different types of cells • All share similar characteristics • Microscopic in size • Similar building blocks • Enclosed by a membrane that controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Target #6- I can identify the characteristics shared by all cells

  8. Target #7- I can explain the function of the plasma membraneTarget #8- I can define cytoplasm • Plasma membrane • Consists of a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins • A living boundary that separates the living contents of the cell from the nonliving surrounding environment • Regulates the entrance and exit of molecules into and out of the cell • Cytoplasm: a semi-fluid substance made of water, salts, and dissolved organic molecules

  9. Eukaryotic Cells Target #9- I can compare and contrast Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic Cells Do not have a nucleus Does not have membrane bound organelles The cell’s DNA is suspended in the cytoplasm Microscopic single celled organisms Includes bacteria Have a nucleus Have membrane bound organelles The nucleus encloses the genetic information May be multi-cellular or single-celled organisms