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Designing a site (1/4) – 1h

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  1. Designing a site (1/4) – 1h First Step

  2. Lazar’s Development Lifecycle Define the mission & target users Collect user requirements Create and Modify Conceptual design Perform usability testing Create and modify physical design Evaluate and improve the website Implement and market the website

  3. First step • Mission statement • what is the purpose of the site ? • Target user population • who is going to use the site ? • Project Brief • Another document! (highly readable and concise) • How the subject will be approached • The scope of the project • The intended audience

  4. Mission: Characterising Websites

  5. Navarro and Khan’s Taxonomy of Web Site Missions Effective Web Design (1998) Question: is this taxonomy still valid today? What other categorisation can you think of?

  6. Defining the Mission Statement • What are the goals of the web site? • Inform or educate • Entertain • Market, sell or persuade • Different goals for different users ? • What type of interaction with the users does the client want? • Buy a product, subscribe to a mailing list, read information, download a patch, play a game etc • How will success be measured ? • Pages visited, products sold, customer satisfaction etc

  7. Defining the Target User • To whom is the web site targeted? • Are there different user groups within the target population? • Can we develop separate user profiles? • Can we contact all these different user groups?

  8. …. need to define …. • baseline specification (user) • platform, bandwidth, browser version, colour resolution, screen resolution, plug-ins etc • technical specifications (development) • platform, authoring tools, hardware, format etc • Content • Who is responsible for it? • text, images, dynamic media etc • navigation • menus, icons, hypertext etc • screen layout • design guidelines, screen display, colours, fonts etc

  9. …. information required ….. • Demographic information • Age, gender, educational experience etc of users • Domain knowledge • Previous knowledge and experience of users • Computing experience • Support and training required in-house • Computing environment • Hardware, software, connection etc (users and in-house) • Content • Users needs • Benchmarking • Exemplars, competition • Other considerations • Redevelopment: previous data such as usability tests

  10. …. decision time • What categories of information need to be collected from the user ? • Which data are most important to collect ? • What other web sites would be good benchmarks ?

  11. Requirements Capture • PACT - • People • who will use the system • Activities • what it will be used for • Contexts • the contexts of the interaction • Technologies • what is technically/logically feasible

  12. PACT - People • Physical Differences • Colour blindness • Impairment • Psychological Differences • Spatial ability • Experience • Usage Differences • Secretaries • Managers

  13. PACT - Activities • Temporal Aspects • Speed of response • Frequency of Use • Cooperation - alone or with others? • Complexity • Step-by- Step or Browse Around? • Safety-Critical - allow recovery from errors • Nature and Content (input device, media)

  14. PACT - Contexts • Physical Environment • Use Outside? • Slow internet access? • Social Context • Sound Permissible? • Privacy Necessary? • Organisational Context • Change power Structure? • Deskilling?

  15. PACT - Technologies • Input • Bar-codes, Touch Screens, Speech? • Output • Video, Speech, Icons? • Communication • Bandwidth, Speed, Storage? • Content • Accurate, Up to Date, Relevant, Well Presented

  16. Requirements Capture • CUTE - Constraints, User profiles, Tasks, Environmental factors

  17. CUTE • Constraints: • Timescale • Budget • Standards or styles • Technical performance criteria • Development personnel • User training requirements • Legal requirements relating to usability or accessibility

  18. CUTE • Users: • Physical and cognitive needs • Domain expertise • Education • Usage profile • Cultural background • Computer experience • Attitude • Work methods

  19. CUTE • Tasks: • Functional specification • User-centred analysis of tasks • Their components • Sequences • typical scenarios • Context of work: • Work pattern • Work group dynamics

  20. CUTE • Environment = physical aspects of the context of use: • Environmental conditions • Siting • Response needs • Criticality • Health and safety issues • Desk-bound or mobile • Stresses • Ergonomic issues

  21. Tools & Techniques • Surveys • Paper • Electronic • Interview • F2F • Telephone • Computer Mediated • Focus groups • F2F • Computer Mediated

  22. Data Gathering Methods - Questionnaires • Good for answering specific questions • Data: Quantitative & qualitative • Can reach many people with low resources • Must be properly designed • Low response rate

  23. Data Gathering Methods - Interviews • Good for exploring issues • Some quantitative but mostly qualitative data • Interviewer can guide interviewee if necessary. • Encourages contact between developer and user / client • Time consuming. • Recording equipment? • Artificial environment may intimidate interviewee

  24. Data Gathering Methods - Focus Groups • Good for collecting multiple viewpoints • Some quantitative but mostly qualitative data • Highlights areas of consensus and conflict. • Encourages contact between developer and user / client • Mix of people: Possibility of dominant / submissive characters.