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Chapter 14 Attachment and Social Relationships PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 14 Attachment and Social Relationships

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  1. Chapter 14Attachment and Social Relationships

  2. Attachment • The case of “Baby Jessica” • Children are resilient • Negative early experiences rarely ruin them for life • Close relationships provide • Learning experiences • Social support (social convoy)

  3. Attachment Theory • Bowlby: A strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion • Helps regulate distress by proximity seeking • By about 6-7 months • Ainsworth: special, irreplaceable people • Desire to maintain proximity • Derive a sense of security • Bowlby: normal environment important

  4. Ethology • Konrad Lorenz: Imprinting • Critical period • Irreversible • Humans: Attachment • Sensitive period • Predisposed

  5. Figure 14.2

  6. Childhood Peers • Important for social development • Piaget: equal power among peers • Requires cooperation, negotiation skills • Sullivan: Peers important after age 6 • Changing interpersonal needs • Harris: Parental influence is overrated • Peers more important for development

  7. Emotions in Infancy • Timing of emotions biologically programmed • Tied to cognitive maturation • Evolved to ensure that caregivers respond • Social referencing by 10-12 months • monitor reactions in others to help define situation, regulate behavior and emotions • Modeling, imitation, reinforcement

  8. Figure 14.1

  9. Caregiver’s Attachment to Infant • Early contact not crucial nor sufficient • Neonatal reflexes endearing: e.g., smiling • Cooing and babbling: early conversations • Synchronized routines • Peek-A-Boo • Sensitive responding a must • Over-stimulation/under-stimulation

  10. Infant’s Attachment to Caregiver • Social responsiveness • At birth: undiscriminating • 2-6 mo: preferences develop • Proximity seeking • 6 mo to 3 yr • Attachment figures • Mental representation abilities needed

  11. Attachment-Related Fears • Separation anxiety: 6-8 mo • Peaks around 14-18 mo • Gradually wanes • Stranger anxiety: 8-10 mo • Declines during 2nd yr • Ainsworth: secure base for exploration

  12. Quality of Attachment • Caregiver provides “contact comfort” • Ainsworth: Strange Situation Test • Secure attachment: most • Insecure attachment categories • Inconsistent care > resistant • Insensitive stimulation > avoidant • Rejection, impatient, resentful • Intrusive • Abusive > disorganized/disoriented

  13. Infant Characteristics • Must acquire person permanence • Temperament a factor • Reaction to parenting style • *Goodness of fit

  14. Context of Attachment • Culture • Individualistic: encourage independence • e.g., Japan • resistant • Collectivist: encourage group conformity • e.g., Western • avoidant

  15. Effects of Social Deprivation • Infants grieve when separated from caregiver • Recover when reunited or upon forming new attachments • A series of separations more harmful • Romanian orphans • Insecure, anxious • Difficulty coping with stress • Need sustained interaction with responsive caregivers – one or a few

  16. Later Outcomes • Securely attached child • Cognitively and socially competent • Expect positive reactions • Insecurely attached child • Withdrawn, dependent, fearful • Less competent • Patterns last through adolescence

  17. Conclusions • Attachment to fathers, grandparents, etc. • Can compensate for poor attachment • Secure attachments may change • Stressful events: divorce, illness • Insecure attachments may change • Lifestyle improvements • Later relationships influenced by nature of early attachment

  18. Peer Relations • 18 mo: first peers • Turn taking • Reciprocal play • Age 2-12: increasing time spent • Same sex peers • Similar age and play preferences

  19. Play • Age 1-2: Pretend play • Age 2-5: Social play • Age 5-6: Rule-based games • By age 11-2: Rule flexibility • Play is beneficial • Cognitive development • Social skills

  20. Peer Acceptance • Sociometric techniques • Most popular kids • Attractive, intelligent • Socially competent • Rejected kids • Highly aggressive • Socially isolated, overly sensitive, submissive

  21. Adolescents • Parents still important • Boy-girl friendships and dates • Dating: Dunphy’s phases • Initiation; Status; Affection; Bonding • Friendships: More intimacy • Friends similar psychologically • Cliques and crowds • Increased conformity

  22. Figure 14.6

  23. The Adult • Social networks shrink • Closer to family • Romantic attachments • Adult friendships valued • Important to have one confidant