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  1. Chinese Local Gazetteers - Layout and Content Haihui Zhang University of Pittsburgh March 19, 2013 San Diego

  2. Nature of Chinese Local Gazetteers Regional (区域性) Continuity (连续性) Primary Source (史料性/资料性) ----------------------------------------------------------- Uniqueness (独特性)

  3. Local History, Local Gazetteer and Local Yearbook • In common: regional and historical • Differences: 地方史(local history) - the development of people and events stated longitudinally 地方志(local gazetteer) - comprehensive records compiled and written horizontally for a certain time period 地方年鉴(local yearbook) - yearly reference book including primary, secondary and tertiarysources

  4. Local History, Local Gazetteer and Local Yearbook (Cont.) • 《北京史》张任忠著 北京: 北京大学出版社,2009. Beijing History • 《北京志》北京: 北京出版社, 1994-2002. Beijing City Gazetteer • 《北京年鉴》(2006) 北京: 北京年鉴社, 2006. Beijing Yearbook

  5. Naming Local Gazetteers Traditional gazetteers Mostly used -- 志 Others – 鄉土志、風土記、圖經、地記、乘、書、攷、錄、略、採訪冊。。。 Contemporary gazetteers Mostly used – 志 Others – 杂记、纪闻、随笔、纪事、琐语、杂志。。。

  6. Naming Local Gazetteers (Cont.) Title Form of Traditional Gazetteers compiling time + administrative region + zhi + number of juan/chapter Samples - [乾隆] 棗陽縣志十七卷 [正德] 光化縣志六卷末一卷 樂清縣鄉土志稿二卷 抄本

  7. Naming Local Gazetteers: Traditional (Cont.) Special terms - National gazetteers: 一統志 Gazetteers for more than one provinces: 總志 Gazetteers for more than one counties: 合志 Provincial gazetteers: 通志、總志、省志、其他(大志、典、 紀、輯要…) Other administrative levels: 府志、州志、廳志、縣志、鎮 志… Special ones:《元和郡縣圖志》《括地志》《滇史》 《黔記》 。。。

  8. Naming Local Gazetteers (Cont.) Title Form of Contemporary Gazetteers 1) administrative region + zhi (志) 《阜新蒙古族自治县志》 《旅顺口区志》《北京市西城区志》《二龙路街道志》。。。 2) administrative region + zhi (志) + profession/subject + zhi (志) 《大连市志· 轻工业志》。。。 3)subject/institute (专题/机构) + zhi (志) 《宝钢志》《普陀山志》《十八站林业局志》《协和医院志》 《上海文化艺术志》《华东理工大学志》。。。

  9. Types of Local Gazetteers Traditional Gazetteers By Administrative Regions [民國]察哈爾省通志 [乾隆]宣化府志 [道光]蘇州府志 [至正]崑山郡志 [乾隆]平定州志 [康熙]淳化縣志 [道光]城口廳志 [雍正]畿辅通志

  10. Types of Local Gazetteers: Traditional (Cont.) By Subject: For Institutes/Agencies/Military fortress 岳陽慎修書院志 衡陽紫雲峰佛國禪寺通志 山海關志 滸墅關志盧州衛志 瀏陽敬學堂志。。。 For Special contents 九華山志 巢湖志 關中勝跡圖記 四鎮三關志 黑盐井志治河圖略 諸城山海物產志岳陽風土記 。。。

  11. Types of Local Gazetteers (Contemporary) New Gazetteers By administrative divisions 河南省志(Province)北京市志(City) 闸北区志(District) 巴林左旗志(Qi) 青浦县志(County) 平山县志(County) 新平彝族傣族自治县志(Autonomous County)万丰村志(Village) 甘家口街道志(Township/Neighborhood) No national level gazetteer Most of gazetteers at provincial/city level have multiple volumes in profession/subject volumes More and more gazetteers at township/neighborhood (街道) and village (村) level have been published

  12. Types of Local Gazetteers: Contemporary (Cont.) By profession Samples - 河南省志 · 商业志(Henan Sheng Gazetteer. Business) 北京市志· 金融志(Beijing Shi Gazetteer. Finance) 武汉市志· 工业志(Wuhan Shi Gazetteer. Industry) 。。。

  13. Types of Local Gazetteers (Contemporary Cont.) By subjects 哈尔滨市志· 环境保护志(Haerbin City Gazetteer. Environmental protection) 河北省志 · 宗教志 (Hebei Province Gazetteer. Religion) 河南省志· 民俗志 (Henan Province Gazetteer. Folk custom) By institutes 马鞍山钢铁公司志 (Maanshan Iron & Steel Company) 华东理工大学志 (East China University of Science and Technology) 上海工商社团志 (Shanghai Industrial and Commercial Societies)

  14. Compiling Features Traditional gazetteers compiled officially and privately 官修、私纂 no fixed compiling cycle and varies in places 编纂周期不固定、各地不一 Samples: 《江都縣志》Gazetteer of Jiangdu County 1599, 1717, 1729, 1743, 1811, 1884, 1926, 1932 《樂清縣志》Gazetteer of Leqing County 1572, 1685, 1826, 1901

  15. Compiling Features (Cont. ) Contemporary gazetteers Mainly government action Specialized agencies Designed compiling cycle (two rounds so far) Unified format

  16. Content of Traditional Gazetteers 輿圖、圖攷 maps 疆域、沿革 boundaries, successive changes 山川 topographical features 古跡 ancient monuments 公署、城池 official buildings and city walls 河防、水利、水渠 water conservancy 職官 officials 選舉 examinations 戶口 population 田賦 land and taxes 市鎮 markets and towns 物產 local products 風俗 local customs 人物、列傳 biographies 藝文 literature works by local people 雜記、雜事 miscellaneous

  17. Special Content Terms of Traditional Local Gazetteers • 述 – 總述、綜述、概述 (Overview, Summary) • 記– 大事記、史略、大事年表 (Chronology) • 志 – 門類志 (Contents in Categories) • 傳 – 人物傳記 (Biographies) • 表 – 統計表、家/族譜表 (Statistics, Genealogy Table) • 圖– 地圖、圖示、照片 (Maps, Diagrams, Photos) • 錄 – 附錄 (Appendixes)

  18. Content Link Up: Traditional [康熙]利津縣新志十卷 (Kangxi) Lijin County Gazetteer Kangxi 12th Year Edition (1673) [乾隆]利津縣志續編十卷 (Qianlong) Lijin County Gazetteer Qianlong 23rd Year Edition (1758) Sample citations from 1758 Edition - 沿革 (Successive historical changes): 康熙癸丑以後與濱州具屬濟南。雍正二年屬直隸濱州,不復屬府。雍正十二年武定陞而為府,與濱州俱屬武定。 土產 (Local products):仍前志。

  19. Content Link Up: Traditional (Cont.) Preface(s) – Most gazetteers include prefaces from earlier editions. Content – * Basic chapters/categories remain the same with slightly changes * Briefly link up to contents from previous editions * Focus on the time period that was not covered in the previous edition.

  20. Contents of Contemporary Gazetteers 政区 boundary and administrative region 大事记events and chronology 自然环境 natural environment 居民 resident 农业 agriculture 水利 water conservation 工业 industry 城乡建設 towns and villages 交通 traffic 邮电 post and telecommunication 贸易 trade 财政金融 finance 经济管理 economics and management 党派团体 parties, groups and organizations

  21. Contents of Contemporary Gazetteers (cont.) 民政 civil administration 劳动人事 labor and personnel 政法 politics and law 军事 military affairs 科技 science and technology 教育 education 文化 culture 体育 sports 卫生 hygiene 民俗 custom 方言 dialect 人物 figures

  22. Content Link Up: Contemporary * First round (第一轮) Started in 80s last century and contents focus on the time period after 1949 * Second round (第二轮) Started after 2000 and contents cover the time period of beginning of 80s to end of 20 Century or beginning of 21 Century

  23. Something to Remind… • Reference books - How do I know more knowledge on Yushe County of Shanxi Province in Ming Dynasty? - How could I get comprehensive information on Gutian County of Fujian Province before 1949? - How could I know old names of 懷仁縣 in history? • Informal and unpublished gazetteers - valuable rare and raw materials • Grassroots gazetteers and contents in different level gazetteers - more detailed information in lower level gazetteers

  24. Something to Remind… (Cont.) Sample: Gazetteers of Guang’anmen Township (广安门外街道) Xuanwu District (宣武区) * Guang’anmenwaiJiedao (Neighborhood) is affiliated with Xuanwu District , Beijing. A. 广安门外街道资料长编 (Gazetteer of Guang’anmenwai Township) informal publication 2 vols. 1996 油印 B. 广安门外街道志 (Gazetteer of Guang’anmenwaiTownship) informal publication 1 vol. 2002.铅印 C. 北京市宣武区志 (Gazetteer of Xuanwu District, Beijing) formal publication by Beijing Chubanshe, 2004 正式出版物