local content curriculum 1994 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
LOCAL CONTENT CURRICULUM 1994 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
LOCAL CONTENT CURRICULUM 1994

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

LOCAL CONTENT CURRICULUM 1994 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 113 Views
  • Uploaded on

LOCAL CONTENT CURRICULUM 1994. The Teaching of Javanese in Yogyakarta Schools INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE LANGUAGES OF JAVA (ISLOJ)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'LOCAL CONTENT CURRICULUM 1994' - auryon


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
local content curriculum 1994
LOCAL CONTENT CURRICULUM 1994

The Teaching of Javanese in Yogyakarta Schools

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE LANGUAGES OF JAVA (ISLOJ)

Semarang, 16 August 2007

Yacinta Kusdaryumi Kurniasih

Monash University

Email: Yacinta.Kurniasih@arts.monash.edu.au

http://www.monash.edu.au/lndonesian

introduction
INTRODUCTION

Teaching policies:

  • Curriculum 1968 (not compulsory)
  • Curriculum 1975 (not compulsory)
  • Curriculum 1994 (compulsory – current)
local content curriculum 19943
Local Content Curriculum 1994
  • Javanese is a compulsory subject
  • It must be taught as a compulsory subject for Gr 1-9
  • Term 1(24hrs), term 2(24hrs) & term 3(20hrs)
  • Approximately 1-2hrs/week
this study
THIS STUDY
  • The language community for this study is based in Yogyakarta
  • Heartland of Javanese culture
  • Population: more than 3 million and almost 70% is native Javanese
  • Aim:
  • to look at the implementation of the policy/curriculum in schools
  • to look at language maintenance (shift) among young Javanese in this community
research questions
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  • What is the pattern of language use of the children in the school environment?
  • What is the pattern of language use of the children in the home environment?
  • What is the pattern of language use of the parents?
  • What factors influence the language use of the children?
  • What are the children’s attitudes to the Javanese language
  • What are the parents’ attitudes to the Javanese language?
methodology
METHODOLOGY
  • A pilot project
      • 3 months (Dec 2001-Feb 2002)
      • 8 schools and 1 day-care
      • Findings: social class & gender are important factors
  • Fieldwork
      • 1 semester (Dec 2003-Jul 2004)
      • 4 schools (2 Primary and 2 Junior High Schools)
      • From each school, 1 class from Gr 5 and Gr 8
      • Total 108 students involved in this study
data collected
DATA COLLECTED
  • Recordings of language use (audio & video)
  • Language use surveys & interviews
  • Participant observations
  • Socio-economic background surveys
  • Language test results
  • Questionnaires on attitudes
social class
SOCIAL CLASS
  • Research samples were identified (using education, place of residence, and combined household income)
  • 2 groups:
    • A. WC (Working Class): 40 families
    • B. MC (Middle Class): 68 families
pattern of language use by children in the home environment
PATTERN OF LANGUAGE USE BY CHILDREN IN THE HOME ENVIRONMENT

_____________________________________________________________________________

Pattern of language Name of Working Class (total:40) Middle Class(total:68)

spoken languages Girls(19) Boys(21) Girls(35) Boys(33)

% % % %

_____________________________________________________________________________

1. LJ 0 0 0 0

2. LJ + HJ 30 81 0 0

3. LJ + Ind 25 5 32 48

4. LJ + HJ + Ind 45 14 11 43

5. Ind 0 0 57 9

_____________________________________________________________________________

Table. 1 Pattern of language use by children in the home-environment

  • LJ: Low Javanese
  • HJ: High Javanese
  • Ind: Indonesian
  • Table 1 shows the language use of children in the home environment based on the synthesis of surveys and recordings of language use, follow-up interviews, and observations.
  • The domain covered a variety of interlocutors such as parents, siblings, grandparents, other members of family living in the house.
pattern of language use by children in the school environment
PATTERN OF LANGUAGE USE BY CHILDREN IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT

____________________________________________________________________________

Pattern of language Name of Working Class(total:40) Middle Class(total:68)

spoken languages Girls(19) Boys(21) Girls(35) Boys(33)

% % % %

____________________________________________________________________________

1. LJ 0 0 0 0

2. LJ+ HJ 0 0 0 0

3. LJ + Ind 40 19 27 74

4. LJ+ HJ + Ind 60 81 11 17

5. Ind 0 0 62 9

____________________________________________________________________________

Table 2. Pattern of language use by children in the school-environment

  • Table 2 shows the language use of children in the school environment based on the synthesis of surveys and recordings of language use, follow-up interviews, and participant observations.
  • The domain covered a variety of interlocutors such as classmates, teaching staff, and administrative staff.
pattern of language use by parents to their social networks
PATTERN OF LANGUAGE USE BY PARENTS TO THEIR SOCIAL NETWORKS

__________________________________________________________________________

Pattern of language Name of Working Class(total:40) Middle Class(total:68)

spoken languages Mothers Fathers Mothers Fathers

% % % %

__________________________________________________________________________

1. LJ 0 0 0 0

2. LJ + HJ 37 76 0 0

3. LJ + Ind 0 0 5 2

4. LJ+ HJ + Ind 63 24 95 98

5. Ind 0 0 0 0

__________________________________________________________________________

Table 3. Pattern of language use by parents to their social networks

  • Data collected from language use survey (self reporting)
  • The survey asked the parents to indicate language use at home, work environment, and place of worship (church/mosque)
  • No Working Class or Middle Class parent reported using Low Javanese (1) only
  • Mothers in general have a strong preference to include Indonesian in their linguistic repertoire
  • No Working Class or Middle Class parent reported using Indonesian (5) only
pattern of language use by the parents to the children
PATTERN OF LANGUAGE USE BY THE PARENTS TO THE CHILDREN

___________________________________________________________________________

Pattern of language Name of Working Class(total:40) Middle Class(total:68)

spoken languages Mothers Fathers Mothers Fathers

% % % %

___________________________________________________________________________

1. LJ 0 0 0 0

2. LJ+ HJ 19 60 0 0

3. LJ + Ind 42 17 4 24

4. LJ + HJ + Ind 39 23 8 37

5. Ind 0 0 88 39

___________________________________________________________________________

Table 4. Pattern of language use by parents to the children

  • Data collected from language use survey (self reporting)
  • The survey asked the parents to report on the language they use to their children
  • No Working Class or Middle Class parent reported using Low Javanese (1) only to the children
  • No Middle Class parent reported using Low + High Javanese only to the children
  • No Working Class parent reported to use Indonesian only to the children
  • Mothers (generally) are more inclined to include Indonesian in their language use to the children
  • About 88% of Middle Class mothers reported using Indonesian only to speak to the children
parent s attitudes toward javanese
PARENT’S ATTITUDES TOWARD JAVANESE

Parent’s attitudes toward Javanese (and the teaching of Javanese at schools)

____________________________________________________________________

Mothers (108) Fathers (108)

1. Javanese is as important as Indonesian only 37% agree 73% agree

2. The young generation of Javanese need

to master Javanese language only 38% agree 69% agree

3. Learning Javanese at school is a waste

of time 59% agree only 9% agree

4. Javanese subject offers no benefit to

my children’s future 71% agree 37% agree

5. It is the right policy to make Javanese

a compulsory subject at Primary and

Junior High School 38% agree 59% agree

6. Learning English is more beneficial than

learning Javanese 76% agree 51% agree

7. Javanese is difficult to learn 69% agree 41% agree

8. I want my children to be able to speak

Javanese 39% agree 87% agree

____________________________________________________________________

  • Some findings (summary) from the attitudes questionnaires
  • Mothers (generally) have less favourable attitudes toward Javanese and the teaching of Javanese at schools than the fathers
extracts on language use and attitudes wc girls
EXTRACTS ON LANGUAGE USE AND ATTITUDES (WC GIRLS)

Extracts (1) – (4) show the comments by the girls from WC families about their parent’s language choice and their attitudes toward Javanese.

(1) Ani: At home mum always use Low Javanese to us, the children, but High Javanese to my

grandparents or older people. She also uses Indonesian to us. She told us Indonesian is

important for school and she wants to help us at home. Dad is the same but he’s never

at home to help!.

(2) Nia: Dad and mum always use Javanese, both Low and High to the children, especially me

‘#My Javanese is not good#’. But, she always reminds me to speak Indonesian at school.

(3) Sum: My mum and dad are not educated, so they only use Javanese. But mum insists that I learn

to speak good Indonesian at school. ‘I don’t want you to be poor like us!’, she said.

(4) Sur: My parents never talk to me or other children, they’re always busy with their work. It was

mum’s idea that I accept my teacher’s offer to live in her place, so that I can concentrate

on my study and be a good student. At home I use Javanese to speak to my parents because

#they don’t know Indonesian#, but at my teacher’s place I often use Indonesian to her young

children.

extracts on language use and attitudes mc girls
EXTRACTS ON LANGUAGE USE AND ATTITUDES (MC GIRLS)

The following extracts (5) – (8) illustrate the girls from MC families reporting on their parent’s language choice and their attitudes toward Javanese.

(5) Mon: Mum never speaks Javanese to me, she always uses Indonesian. Dad is different! He often

uses words in Javanese and #he’s the only one who can help me with my Javanese

homework#. Mum says not to worry with my Javanese. At school now, definitely

Indonesian is more important!. It’s included in the national exam!

(6) Tess: Javanese?...I can’t speak Javanese!. # . At home we always speak to each other in Indonesian

anyway. Even though, my dad and my brother can speak Javanese! #they often joke in

Javanese#. Mum and I use Indonesian. Mum said it’s easy that way!. Yes…dad helps me

with my Javanese homework.

(7) Sel: Since I was little, I think……mum always speaks to me in Indonesian. I feel #funny# when I

use Javanese. Mum encouraged me to learn English rather than worrying about my Javanese!.

It’s funny! Dad often uses Javanese to my younger brother! Because he can. No!, he never

forces me to speak Javanese!

(8) Wid: My parents sell salted fish in the market. They both use Javanese a lot! They’re not educated!

‘#Mum thinks Indonesian is for the educated people#’. I speak Javanese well I think!.

But at school I use Indonesian most of the time, because all the girls do!.

extracts on language use and attitudes wc boys
EXTRACTS ON LANGUAGE USE AND ATTITUDES (WC BOYS)

The following extracts (9) – (12) illustrate the boys from WC families reporting on their parent’s language choice and their attitudes toward Javanese.

(9) Ron: Mum speaks Javanese to me but she uses Indonesian a bit when she helps me with the home

work. I rarely speak to dad, when we do, we use Javanese. Why? I guess all of his friends

speak Javanese and we’re all #Javanese#. I play with the boys in the village. They’re all speak Low

Javanese.

(10) Fery: Dad speaks Javanese to me and my older sister. Everybody speaks Javanese at home! Only

mum sometimes uses Indonesian a little bit to remind us to do the home work or school

assignment. She likes to say ‘Everything with school must be in Indonesian’. I’m used to speaking

Javanese with my friends at home and school.

(11) Ikhwan: They speak Javanese to us. # I don’t think they know Indonesian #. Dad only finished

primary school and mum dropped-out I think!. They were very happy when I got the scholarship

to study here, otherwise after primary school I would have to work as a farm laborer like

them. Mum wanted me to be a school teacher. I want to be a teacher of Islam.

(12) Roch : We’re Javanese! We speak Javanese#. Only at school, I use Javanese and Indonesian,

because of the staff. My parents speak High Javanese to my teachers at school. When the

teacher speaks to me in Javanese I reply in Javanese. When they use Indonesian I use Indonesian

as well. It depends on them! To be polite.

extracts on language use and attitudes mc boys
EXTRACTS ON LANGUAGE USE AND ATTITUDES (MC BOYS)

The following extracts (13) – (16) illustrate the boys from MC families reporting on their parent’s language choice and their attitudes toward Javanese.

(13) Andi: I know my dad wants me to learn Javanese. He tries to use more Javanese these days,

#and especially when he’s mad at me!#. Mum and us (the children) use Indonesian a lot!

She does use one or two Javanese words. # Only Low Javanese #. I often play with

the neighbours and most of them are Javanese. I can only speak Low Javanese! Very bad.

I guess I just have to learn. I want to be a priest and you must speak very good Javanese

if you want to be a priest in Yogya!

(14) Kiky: Dad speaks Javanese to me but mix it with Indonesian to my younger brothers.

Mum uses more Indonesian. Why? Because she’s the one who help us with the home work.

I use Indonesian and Low Javanese with friends at school. I use High Javanese with Pak Agus*.

(15) Tito: Mum speaks to me and my younger sister in Indonesian. I guess it’s easier than Javanese.

Dad uses more Javanese, but I spend more time with my mum’s family. They all speak Indonesian.

I know Low Javanese but I am not confident using High Javanese.

(16) Dan: Mum and Dad are both high school teachers. They speak to each other in Javanese. They often

use Javanese and Indonesian to speak to me. # Perhaps because my Javanese is not good #.

* Pak Agus is the History and Javanese teacher

transcription conventions
TRANSCRIPTION CONVENTIONS

Name: Informant (participant)

! : Rising intonation

? : Questioning Intonation

Bold: Increased loudness for reinforcement/stress

‘…..’: Quoted speech

# : Indicates laughter

conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • Despite the government’s efforts, the children (particularly girls) from Middle Class backgrounds prefer Indonesian to Javanese
  • Working Class children tend to maintain Javanese
  • Language use at home matters
  • Mother’s language choice and attitudes toward Javanese plays an important role in the language shift
  • Mothering afford a potential site for language shift/change
references
REFERENCES
  • Chambers JK 2003 Sociolinguistics Theory: Linguistic Variation and its Social Significance Blackwell Publisher UK.
  • Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 1994 Kurikumum Muatan Lokal Yogyakarta.
  • Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Jakarta 1994 Pengajaran Bahasa Jawa di Sekolah Pendidikan Guru Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.
  • Dorian NC 1981 Investigating Obsolenscene: Studies in Language Contraction and Death Cambridge University Press Cambridge.
  • Errington J 1985 Language and Social Change in Java: linguistics reflexes of modernization in a traditional royal polity The Center for International Studies Ohio University Ohio.
  • Errington J 1988 Structure and Style in Javanese: a semiotic view of linguistic etiquette University of Pennsylvania Press Philadelphia.
  • Errington J 1998 Shifting Languages: Interaction and Identity in Javanese Indonesia Cambridge University Press Cambridge.
  • Florey MJ 2005 ‘Language Shift and Endangerment’ in Adelaar A & Himmelmann NP (eds) The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar Routledge London.
  • Geertz C 1960 The Religion of Java The Free Press Glencoe.
  • Goebel Z 2005 ‘An ethnographic Study Code Choice in Two Neighbourhoods of Indonesia’ Australian Journal of Linguistics 25:85-107.
  • Kaplan,RB & Baldauf,RB 1997 Language Planning: From Practice to Theory UK Multilingual Press.
  • Wolff,JU & Poedjosoedarmo,S 1982 Communicative Codes in Central Java Linguistic Series Ithaca NY Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.