Sustainability. Sustainability Issues. Eat less meat Waste Management Energy Use. Eating animal products has significant impacts. Energy choices through food choices. Environmental ramifications of eating meat. Land and water are needed to raise food for livestock. 1961.
Sustainability Issues • Eat less meat • Waste Management • Energy Use
Environmental ramifications of eating meat Land and water are needed to raise food for livestock.
1961 Fig. 14. A large part of the forest land is grazed. (Photo by Hawaii Forest Division)
Alternative Protein Source • Carbon footprint • COW: 2,850 g CO2 /kilo of mass gained • PIGS: 1,120 • SUN BEETLES: 121 • CRICKETS 1.27 top sirloin beef: 100 g contains about 29 g of protein and 21 g of fat Grasshopper: 100 g contains 20 g of protein and 6 grams of fat."
Reasons why some choose to practice vegetarianism • Religious • Ethical • Health • Environmental • Animal • Welfare • Economical
Health Advantages • Vegetarian diets have been associated with the following when compared to nonvegetarian diets: • lower LDL cholesterol levels • lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease • lower blood pressure • lower rates of hypertension type 2 diabetes • lower body mass index • lower overall cancer rates
Nutritional Considerations for Vegetarians • Protein • Iron • Zinc • Calcium • Vitamin D • Vitamin B12 • Vitamin A/ Beta carotene • Omega-3 fatty acids • Iodine
American Plate Asian Plate Hawaiian Plate
Carbs: taro, yams, arrowroot, or breadfruit vines, ferns, herbs, limu (seaweed) Protein: birds, chicken, pigs, fish, shrimp, shellfish, squid, limpet, crab and other seafood,
Erosion carries soil away Environmental concerns
Fertilizers boost yields but cause problems Eutrophication (too much N2)
Waste can be reduced by manufacturers Waste can be reduced by manufacturers if consumers: • Choose minimally packaged goods • Buy unwrapped fruits and vegetables • Buy in bulk
Many incinerators create energy • Incineration reduces the volume of waste and can generate electricity. • Waste-to-energy facilities (WTE): use the heat produced by waste combustion to produce steam to create electricity Kapaa Quarry
Waste can be reduced by manufacturers vs Chokes animal life Litters environment
Composting recovers organic waste Composting: the conversion of organic waste into mulch or humus through natural biological processes of decomposition • Can be used to enrich soil • Earthworms, bacteria, soil mite, sow bugs, and other organisms convert waste into high-quality compost.
Industrial ecology • Redesigning industrial systems to reduce resource inputs and maximize physical and economic efficiency • Industry mimics nature with little waste • Waste from one organism is food for another • Everything is connected by cyclic processes • Living off nature’s interest • Businesses can use industrial ecology to save money while reducing waste.
Conventional Waste Managment in Fiji MushroomGrowing Chicken Raising Methane Gas Production Fish Ponds Brewery waste dumped into oceans to destroy coral reefs Brewery Muck dumped on fields Waste piles up Methane vented Muck cleaned out
Industrial Ecology in Fiji MushroomGrowing Chicken Raising Methane Gas Production Fish Ponds HydroponicGardening Brewery waste fertilizes mushrooms Brewery Mushroom residue feeds chickens Chicken waste is composted Solids become fish food Nutrients used in gardens
Illegal dumping of hazardous waste Kapaa Quarry Honolulu http://www.opala.org/solid_waste/Stop_Illegal_Dumping.html
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Why recycle? What can be recycled? Where do we recycle?
Alternative Energy • Hydroelectric • Geothermal • Wave energy • Solar • Wind • Biofuels • Clean coal • Tidal energy • OTEC deep water cooling
Cars can run on ethanol • Flexible fuel vehicles: run on 85% ethanol • But very few gas stations offer this fuel • Biodiesel: a fuel produced from vegetable oil, used cooking grease or animal fat • Some people use straight vegetable oil in their diesel engines. Bio-Beatle Rental on Maui
Biomass energy brings benefits • It is essentially carbon-neutral, releasing no net carbon into the atmosphere. O2 CO2 Sugarcane
Drawbacks of biomass energy • Health hazards from indoor air pollution • Rapid harvesting can lead to deforestation, soil erosion, and desertification. • Growing crops exerts tremendous impacts on ecosystems. • Decreased biodiversity • Fertilizers and pesticides • Land is converted to agriculture. • Biofuel is competing with food production. • Corn supplies for food have dropped. • Substantial inputs of energy are required.
Wind power has many benefits • Wind produces no emissions. • It doesn’t release any CO2,, SO2, NOx, mercury. • It is more efficient. • Turbines also use less water than conventional power plants. • It can be used on many scales, from one turbine to hundreds. • Farmers and ranchers can lease their land. • Produces extra revenue • Landowners can still use their land for other uses.
Geothermal power has benefits and limits • Benefits: • Reduces emissions • It does emit very small amounts of gases. • Limitations: • May not be sustainable • Water is laced with salts and minerals that corrode equipment and pollute the air. • Limited to areas where the energy can be trapped
Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative by 2030