natural parks their value in understanding the past present and future n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
NATURAL PARKS: THEIR VALUE IN UNDERSTANDING THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
NATURAL PARKS: THEIR VALUE IN UNDERSTANDING THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

NATURAL PARKS: THEIR VALUE IN UNDERSTANDING THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 107 Views
  • Uploaded on

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, Spain The University of the Free State , Bloemfontein, South Africa. NATURAL PARKS: THEIR VALUE IN UNDERSTANDING THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. Y.Fernandez-Jalvo & L.Scott.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'NATURAL PARKS: THEIR VALUE IN UNDERSTANDING THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.' - sereno


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
natural parks their value in understanding the past present and future
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, Spain

TheUniversity of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

NATURAL PARKS: THEIR VALUE IN UNDERSTANDING THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.

Y.Fernandez-Jalvo& L.Scott

Researchteam: James Brink, Lloyd Rossouw, Frank Neumann, Graciela Gil-Romera, Eduardo García-Prieto Fronce.

slide2

Fossils are the key to the understanding of the dynamics of past climatic and biodiversity changes, apart from species evolution (including humans)

  • ENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTIONS
slide4

Global climate changes have been occurring previously and will continue in the future.

Patterns of current and past climatic fluctuations, environmental trends and ecological cycles are all rooted in the past.

a fossil site
A FOSSIL SITE

Langebaanweg

LANGEBAANWEG SITE

natural parks are important analogues
NATURAL PARKS ARE IMPORTANT ANALOGUES

Modern pristine environments provide crucial information for understanding processes that occurred in the past and to reconstruct the palaeo-environment.

slide7

Palaeo-ecosystems are reflected by fossils like pollen that is direct evidence of plants that grew in the past

Many fossil sites contain pollen in their sediments

slide8

W

E

Swamp

Fynbos

Woodland

Langebaanwegvegetation

reconstruction based on pollen

Pollen transport

Coast

Interior

preservation of fossil plant remains including pollen in sediments
Preservation of fossil plant remains including pollen in sediments

Humid/subhumidconditions

Arid conditions

Lakes/swamps

No O2 H2O

Seasonal H2O

O2

Preservation excellent

Preservation poor

Caves

O2 H2O

(vapour)

Speleothems

O2 No H2O

Preservation poor

(rare pollen in speleothems)

Preservationreasonable

= coprolite

slide10
Hyaena coprolites as fossilized scats are important traps of pollen
  • The micro-environment inside the scat/coprolite is especially good for pollen preservation
slide11

Equus Cave: Brown hyaenaden

Coprolites are richer in pollen and other plant microfossils than their surrounding sediments

slide12

0

50

100

150

200

Equus Cave: brown hyaenaden

Coprolite pollen %

Sediment pollen %

Age ka BP uncalib.

Sediment units

Herbs+shrubs

Herbs+shrubs

Grass pollen

Grass pollen

Depth cm

Tree pollen

Tree pollen

other

other

2.4

1A

7.5

9.8

IB

11.9

2A

20.7

27.3

2B

20

40

60

20

40

60

80

20

40

60

80

100

20

20

40

20

40

60

80

20

40

60

20

slide13

Deelpan (playa)

Pollen

types:

TARCHONANTHUS

ANTHOSPERMUM

AIZOACEAE TYPE

CAPPARIDACEAE

OPHIOGLOSSUM

LACTUCOIDEAE

PELLAEA TYPE

SCROPH-TYPE

PODOCARPUS

CYPERACEAE

ASTERACEAE

COMMELINA

CHENO/Am

ARTEMISIA

APIACEAE

TRIBULUS

POACEAE

RICCIA

OLEA

coprolites

Surface pollen sites

20

40

60

80

100

20

40

60

20

20

40

60

20

40

60

80

slide14

Hyaena coprolites are found at many European hyaena den sites

KentsCavern (UK)

Las ventanas (Spain)

Bois Roche (France)

slide16

African Natural Parks are the only places where we can experiment and observe hyaenas today to interpret fossil hyaena traces found elsewhere in the world.

Deelpan (playa)

Langebaanweg

experimental approach advantages of tswalu kalahari
Experimental approach: Advantages of Tswalu Kalahari

Feeding place

  • Current hyaena den
  • Passageways used by hyaenas
  • Information of food eaten by prey and hyaenas

Gosberg Valley

Hyaena den

slide18

Our subject of investigation is pollen content in hyaena scats. Method: Inner and outer layers. Short term research, seasonal variation. Long term research, climatic parameters. None of these aspects have been studied before.

Fresh

Crocutacrocuta

(spotted hyaena)

Africa

Holocene

Hyaenabrunnea

(brown hyaena)

Pleistocene

Unknown species

Spain

slide19

AIM OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH.

Our multidisciplinary project is primarily aimed at questions of how fossil scats can be used in connection with global environmental change but it can also shed light on local conditions and hyaena behaviour in the Kalahari

collecting samples
COLLECTING SAMPLES:

At the end of each season

  • Collect scats produced during the season
  • Collect surface sediment at the scat
  • Collect aerial pollen by means traps as control
  • Vegetation maps and weather parameters
the inner and outer pollen contents of coprolites
THE INNER AND OUTER POLLEN CONTENTS OF COPROLITES

Comparison between internal and external parts of the coprolite can indicate the influence of different pollen sources on the total pollen spectrum.

Inner = dust + diet (including gut prey + skin + plants +water)

Pollen rain

Pollen rain

Pollen from diet

and diet of prey

Scat

slide22

THE INNER AND OUTER POLLEN CONTENTS OF COPROLITES

  • Outer sticky surface derived from pollen rain or pollen transported by insects
slide23

RESULTS

  • Noapparentstatisticallyrelevantdifferencebetweeninner and outerparts of scats

Modern

scats

Coprolites

slide24

If differences were found, special protocols would be needed to extract and study pollen from coprolites and it would be essential to preserve the outer part of the coprolites.

Our research on the interior parts of scats can then be used to interpret coprolites in terms of seasonal variations and climatic change.

slide25

Equus Cave changes in conditions suggestedby coprolite pollen PCA compared with ice core indications of climate change

-

33

Holocene

Pleistocene

-

35

-

37

-

39

δ18 O

-

41

-

43

-

45

5000

10000

15000

Temperature conditions

2

1

0

-

1

PC Scale

Moisture conditions

1

0

-

1

Equus Cave

-

2

-

3

0

5000

10000

15000

cal Years BP

acknowledgements
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special thanks to Duncan MacFadyen for facilities and great interest in this project.

We are also grateful to the personnel of Tswalu Kalahari Reserve for assistance during sample collection in the park and to our researchteam.

The project was initiated through funding by an international collaboration between South Africa (NRF) and Spain (Ministry of Science).