GROUP GOALS. Larson & LaFasto (1989) examined government, business, & sports teams. “ In every case, without exception, when an effectively functioning team was identified, it was described by respondents as having a clear understanding of its objective”. Group Goal-Setting.
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GROUP GOALS • Larson & LaFasto (1989) examined government, business, & sports teams. • “In every case, without exception, when an effectively functioning team was identified, it was described by respondents as having a clear understanding of its objective”.
Group Goal-Setting • Locke & Latham (1990) 93% positive or contingently positive • Meta-Analysis (O’Leary-Kelly, et al., 1994) 83% positive, 10% mixed, 7% negative; d = .92
Why Do Group Goals Affect Performance? • Effort • Coordination • Planning & Strategy • Lack of Conflict
ZANDER(1995) Group goals are more effective if they are: • Specific • Measurable • Feedback • Accessible (identifiable paths to goal that are under the group’s control) • Moderately Difficult • Accepted
Issues • Individual or Group Goals? • Combining Individual & Group Goals? • Individual or Group Feedback? • Depends on Task Interdependence.
Pooled Independent Task (Savedra, 1993) Performance Appraisal Task
Pooled Independent Task • Matsui (1987) • Group + Individual Goals 9% Better Than Individual Goals. • Feedback led to improved performance for persons who were below either individual or group goals.
Interdependent Task (Savedra, 1993) Performance Appraisal Task
Egocentric vs Groupcentric Individual Goal (Crown 1993) • No Goal (do your best) • Egocentric Individual Goal (7 words) • Group Goal (5 sentences) • Egocentric Individual + Group Goal • Groupcentric Individual Goal (17 letters to group sentences) • Groupcentric Individual Goal + Group Goal
Group Performance (Sentences) • Groupcentric Individual Goal & Group Goal (35% higher than No Goal) • Groupcentric Individual Goal • Group Goal • No Goal • Egocentric Individual & Group Goal • Egocentric Individual goal
Goals & Feedback Should Match Task Demands • Savedra (1993) performance appraisal task • Pooled (Independent Work Flow) Highest quantity and quality of performance with an individual goal and individual feedback. • Team (Interdependent Work Flow) Highest quantity and quality of performance with a group goal and group feedback.