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The New South and Trans-Mississippi West. New South– a redefined persona of itself after the Civil war; South needed to rejoin the Union and gain economic strength and power—too much for the Northern tax base to bear alone.
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The New South and Trans-Mississippi West • New South– a redefined persona of itself after the Civil war; • South needed to rejoin the Union and gain economic strength and power—too much for the Northern tax base to bear alone. • Henry W. Grady, more than any other southerner built the new persona of the “New South”
By 1870, South needs a new image—distancing itself from the Old Slavery image— to stimulate investment and economy. • Grady’s famous speech: Made three important points—1) No longer two separate nations—Mason-Dixon lined erased; • 2) Southern economy embracing industrialization over agriculture; • 3) Race relations had changed—Blacks now partners with whites in this “New South.”
Henry W. Grady • An Atlanta businessman • A Journalist • Owner of the Atlanta Constitution • Determined to to bring the South into the industrial age
We can assess Grady’s points by assessing economy and race relations! • 1) Economically—major infrastructure construction taking place (transportation, ports, roads, and communications); Federal money supported this infrastructure. • 1880s, South very good RR system—Good Ports system—Richard H. Edmund along with Grady encouraged Northern and Foreign investment; • Southerners also clamored for Industrialization—Cotton/agriculture too unstable
There were three economical/industrial advancements: • Cotton Industry, Iron and Steel, and Tobacco. • Cotton—transformed into a cotton industry of mills and factories—sponsored by outside capitalists • (1880= 161 factories—1900= 400+) • Unfortunately used racist hiring policies to keep Blacks in agriculture and keep Unions at bay
Southern Industry • 2) Iron and Steel—large rich coal and ore deposits in the South—South led the world in coal production; • Increased investments in Iron and Steel—Andrew Carnegie controlled these industries—Birmingham a big steel center; • 3) Tobacco—grown in the South but rarely processed in the South—changed by the 1880s—Duke Tobacco brothers etc …The South had transformed industrially, but it fails the test in race relations. • (3 big industries—Timber and Naval Stores will also be big)
Share Cropping and Tenancy • Emerged after the emancipation of the Slaves. • Sort of a land lease program to help Freedmen who owned no land to farm and share in the profits of the Whites who did own the land; • Would receive all necessary to plant, reap and process, but essentially renting the items and the land.
Sharecropping and Tenancy • Farmer always ended owing more than return—so it was a perpetual indebtedness; • Tenant Farming—the renter furnished most of the equipment, animals, and all of the labor—the owner furnished the land and they shared in the profits; • Possible to emerge out of tenancy in theory—reality was different –by 1930 there were 1.8 million tenant and sharecropping farmers in the South.
Constitutional Processes • Second part to Grady’s litmus test of change. • First deal with Constitution • 13th amendment—guaranteed citizenship regardless of previous servitude (unless criminal) • 14th amendment—essentially guarantees “Due process” and “Equal protection”
Constitutional Processes • Section 2 of the 14th also stated that all people would be counted as a whole; • (Except Indians). • This dismantled the 3/5ths compromise of 1787 • Also for electoral college votes it would only pertain to males 21yrs or older • Any debt or property loss due to rebellion is also forgone—cannot recoup lost slave money. • 15th amendment—essentially sanctioned male suffrage in the U.S.
Constitutional Reality • Blacks disenfranchised with state enactments of the “Jim Crow” Laws; (more on this later) • A system to ensure racial segregation in transportation, accommodations, schools, courts, etc … • Race relations in fact did not transform
The West • “Old West” is a post Civil War phenomenon (1865-1890); • Settlement of 430 million acres—more than at any other time in American History. • 3 big empires rose and fell-Mining, Farming, and Cattle.
The West • Ten new states entered the union; by 1912 the lower forty-eight were complete • Devastating Indian wars and relocation of a people; • Gunslingers, the Marlborough man, the rugged individualist; John Wayne, Audie Murphy and Clint Eastwood; • Independent and free; and of course HOLLYWOOD!!!
The West • Many myths about the Old West—some true and most embellished. • Three questions: • 1) where was the old west? • 2) when was the old west? • 3) what comes to mind when we hear the term “the old west?”
The West • Before Civil War-referred to as the “Great American Desert—unfit for life or cultivation.” (Surveyor Stephen H. Long labeled this). • This retarded migration—sometime around the Civil War—the exploits of the Mountain Men appeared in novels etc … attitude changed to “The Bountiful Garden.”
The West • What changed? Charles Dana Wilber and industrialization. • Wilber preached that if settlers followed the science and plow—also would rain and bounty follow. • Bizarre—1870s Plains witnessed unusually high levels of rain fall—this encouraged settlement. “In God we trusted, but in Kansas we busted.”
The West • So, the West is more than geographical terrain. More than a time line of 25 to 30 yr dominance in our history. • It conjures up images: • Strong, self reliant, Cattle barons, Pioneer Women and men—self-democracy- • Cowboy!!!!
Frederick Jackson Turner • “The Significance of the frontier in American history.” • Other than Dime store novels, Turner was responsible for the academic interpretation of the Western reality and how it influenced America and its people. • What did Turner mean by the frontier?
Significance of the Frontier • Posited four valid points: • 1) West not a physical place, but a process, a mind set of growth and expansion—point where savagery meets civilization (a series of west's as it were); • 2) The west is largely people leaving settled areas for the frontier (mindset and individualism)—struggle to live in such an environment—explains American development and exceptionalism;
Significance of the Frontier • 3) Frontier produces American democracy and individualism—men are on their own and must be innovative and develop institutions outside the norm to function according to conditions “Free land makes Free men.” • 4) Finally, frontier is closed—this is the first successful stage of American development—America is settled and civilized—eventually people will subordinate to society—no need for further expansion!
Frontier • In sum, Civilization is a process in which society becomes evermore complex (natural progression of genius and innovation). • As complexities increases, opportunities become more limited (technology, academia, skills); • People will subordinate to society.
The West-The Cowboy • Folklore—hardened individual, free spirit, independent, rugged, solely alone interacting with nature • Approx 35000 cowboys between 1864-1884. • 63% White; 25% Black; and 12% Mexican
Cowboys and Cattle Kingdom • Folklore, the hard drinking, brave sort of “Noble Savage” mentality that saved the day and rescued the girl is the myth of Hollywood. Tall dark and handsome. Randolph Scott and Audie Murphy. • In reality, most were derelicts of society, ne’er do wells or adventure seeking-In a Wyoming round-up of 1875—Cowboys were wild-eyed, shaggy hair, butternut trousers, great boots and in need of hygiene.
Cattle Towns • Cattle towns in folklore; Abilene and Dodge City were not booming towns dominated by Saloons and Brothels; • Certainly there were some; but most governed strictly by Law—Couldn’t carry guns in town, Police walked the streets—seldom if ever was there the famed street Gun Fight of Hollywood.
Cattle Drives • In 1865, Cattle were 3 to 4 dollars per head; • Back east, they were worth 10x that; • Made sense to get the western cattle to eastern markets—usually by train; • Over a 20 yr period 5 million cattle were driven up the Chisholm trail from Texas to Oklahoma or Kansas and eventually to Chicago.
Cowboy Labor • Cowboys were not individualists, they worked in close cooperation with each other and the trail Boss; set of rigid range laws. • Cowboys were everyday laborers who were hired by the owner to move the cattle to markets; • Most Cowboys joined labor unions to protect their interests ensure better working conditions and better wages.(1884 Cattle drive-Knights of labor-Cowboys on strike).
Labor Unions • Many Cowboys joined the Knights of Labor. • The cattle barons also joined forces in Cattlemen Associations—all were trying to protect their interests; • In reality no one went it alone; it does, however, reveal a growing complexity in American Society—Myth was just that a myth!!!
Indian wars • Civil war—many western troops went east to fight; • Indians took advantage of this to seek revenge on the Whites for treaty and social abuses; • After Civil war—Americans began their western progress in full earnest; • Moved for land, gold, commerce and adventure—a slight reprieve on the encroachment of Indian lands—sort of false sense of security of the Indians.
Indian Wars • Show down brewing between the old Americans and the New “bullish” Americans imbibed with Manifest destiny; • The beseiged ‘Redman’ became threatened with extinction—a fundamental choice by the Indian, assimilation had been tried, appeasement too, nothing seemed to slow down the advancement—treaties made in good faith were worthless—simple choice— • Surrender or Fight!!!!!!! Many chose to fight.
Indian Wars • 25 year armed and brutal conflict; • Best described as Guerilla skirmishes, pursuits, massacres, raids, expeditions, battles and campaigns of various sizes and duration and intensity. • Common denominator was vicious brutality!
Indian Wars • Civil War ended, no one expected to have to fight one of the bloodiest wars in American history. • Usually a garrison of federal troops were able to keep Indians at bay—Army focused on Southern occupation and neutralizing Maximillan’s attempts to colonize Mexico and eliminating the Fenian threat at bay on the northeastern border with Canada (Irish Brotherhood)—a unreconstrcuted Rebels at bay marauding the West.
Indian Wars • This however consumed America and how to deal with this Indian issue. • Indians were a serious threat to American Hegemony and expansion; • Indians made some headway punishing settlers and Military outposts until after Custer’s debacle; • To protect America’s vital internal interests a comprehensive system of Forts were established along the Oregon, California, Bozeman, and Santa Fe trails.
Indian Wars • Garrisons were designed to reconnoiter and protect the trails; • Early successes, between 1855-1857 US Troops had severely beaten back hostile Sioux and Comanche tribes; • Assumed post civil war would be same result
Indian Wars • Very different; this time the Indians were more consolidated in a unified effort; • We start with the great Sioux uprising in 1862; • This was in response to the US breaking the Fitzpatrick treaty of Fort Laramie of 1851. • Lands ceded were now coveted and taken by Whites moving west due to the Homestead Act of 1862.
Indian wars • Red Cloud saw through the trick of isolating each tribe on separate tracts of land—eminent domain now comes into effect– creates a fraction in Indian solidarity. • Systematic stealing of lands began—some time the Indians fought back as in 1864—Black kettle
Black Kettle • Saw the futility of fighting the Americans—sued for peace—was told that Indians would be fought until all Indian Arms were laid— • Assumed that meant peace—went to old lands from the Old Treaty in Sand Creek basin and settled –hopefully in peace • Nov 28, 1864, Col. Chivington surrounded the sleeping village at dawn—attacked—Black Kettle waved the American flag to prove his alliance— • Many were butchered and killed –women and children—Soldiers used the butts of the rifles to kill children and babies to conserve ammunition.
Retribution • The Sioux and Comanche took this seriously—500 of their brethren had been massacred—they in turn massacred and butchered many frontier families and settlers. • By 1866, Indiansd tired of war agreed to surrender with the notin they may not settle these lands but retain hunting rights—Sand Creek lands. • Red Cloud protests the building of the Powder river road (Bozeman Trail)through Indian hunting lands—decides to go to war
Retribution • Red Cloud formidable and vicious—Captain William J. Fetterman’s massacre went out on the Bozeman Trail to protect some woodcutters and Water bearers—saw a group of Indian—put up a chase—Indians fled; • Fetterman followed them over a hill—never came back—all 80 men were massacred in the most horrendous fashion—bodies were mutilated—some Troopers had over 80 arrows in them—younger Braves used the bodies as target practice. • New Recruits were warned to never run out of ammunition—always save the last bullet for yourself—more humane than what the Indians would do to them if caught alive.
Gov’t response • 1) end the slaughter of both Whites and Indians on the frontier—more humane and equable policies—many knew the system was to blame—too harsh punishment inflicted on Indians even for minor infractions—placating Indians with Whiskey and guns was counterproductive • 2) If they cannot be controlled on Reservations, then they are to be treated as hostiles and forced on Reservations—this meant open warfare on any Tribe who refused to submit or did not understand the conditions of the treaty.
Custer gets Involved • Again Black Kettle is involved. Along the Washita—Present day Fort Sill, Lawton Oklahoma—Black Kettle’s tribe is being systematically starved due to abuses and misappropriations—they took to raiding for food; • Sherman and Sheridan decide to punish a might blow to them—Custer uses Chivington’s model of attacking at dawn and killing everyone he could—lucky for him Braves were off on hunting trip. • Sherman and Sheridan report there should be little trouble left in the Indians—How wrong they were.
Custer • The raids and skirmishes intensify in number and viciousness— • Gold in the Black Hills—Custer assigned protection duty of miners and surveyors—Government issues warning—enter Black Hills at own risk—no protection from military (wink, wink). • By 1875-76 Indians were no off the reservation and retaliating every chance they got. Custer and the 7th cavalry assigned the duty of putting them back on the reservation.
Custer • Gov’t put out decree late in the season(dec) declaring any Indians caught off reservation by Jan would be considered hostile—too late for many—they were too far north or south to get back to mid-western reservation—Indians travel as villages not as small parties
Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull • Stay put forge for food and protect their village and people; • Set up camp along the Big Horn River—a well defended area; • Custer part of an Army Group assigned to Gen terry and gen crook—to force Sitting Bull back onto reservation.
Custer’s last stand • Custer, impetuous and crazy brave attacked Sitting Bull’s village before Terry or Crook arrived. It ended in his complete slaughter and massacre. • Fatal victory for the Indians—Government now determined to rid itself of the Indian question—ended the major Indian wars—some Geronimo and Cochise excursions in the southwest but essentially over-culminating in ‘Wounded Knee”
Conclusion of Indian wars • Sporadic skirmishes for several years; • Wovoka, a Paiute messiah promised in a vision if one returned to the old ways and performed ritual ghost dances the Whiteman would disappear—Sioux adopted the “Ghost Dance.” Army wanted it stopped. To disarm an unarmed people it ended with “Wounded Knee.”
Conclusion of Indian wars • In reality, this brought to a final tragic end a 30 year war in which the U.S. subdued a segment of its own population whose only crime was an insistence on maintaining their cultural identity rather than assimilate into a Euro-centric society