Green Transportation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

green transportation n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Green Transportation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Green Transportation

play fullscreen
1 / 84
Green Transportation
274 Views
Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Green Transportation

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Green Transportation 绿色交通 Paulo Sergio Custodio Beijing April 2007 保罗•古斯都吉奥 北京 2007 年 4 月

  2. Introduction 简介 • This conference has the objective to present alternatives towards green transportation for China and elsewhere • 本次大会旨在为中国以及其他国家/地区提供发展绿色交通的备选方案 This presentation was made with contribution from Bernardo Baranda, from ITDP 感谢交通与发展政策研究所 (ITDP) 的 Bernardo Baranda 先生在制作此演示文档过程中提供的鼎力协助

  3. Green Transportation Hierarchy 绿色交通层次结构 Source: TA Magazine, Spring 2001 数据来源:《TA 杂志》( 2001 年春季)

  4. Green transportation 绿色交通 Air Quality Deterioration空气质量恶化 Quality of Public Transportation 公共交通质量 Difficulties and risks for the most weak 弱势群体 面临困难和风险 Urban Transportation Problems城市 交通 问题 Accidents交通事故 Increase in use and Speed of Cars 车辆数量及行驶 速度日益增加 Traffic Congestion交通拥堵 Bernardo Baranda - ITDP Bernardo Baranda - ITDP

  5. Green Transportation Hierarchy 绿色交通层次结构 • The green transportation hierarchy is the basic concept behind transportation reform groups all over the world • The hierarchy puts pedestrians and city-friendly cyclists first • It rewards their low cost, space efficiency, and zero environmental impact. • 绿色交通层次结构是全球各个交通改革团体所持有的基本理念 • 该层次结构将行人以及骑自行车等城市环保人士放在第一位 • 它赞赏采用步行和骑自行车出行,因为这两种方式成本低、空间利用较高且对环境没有任何影响。

  6. Green transportation hierarquy 绿色交通层次结构 • Trucks are not last because they perform vital commercial functions in cities • An important part of the green transportation hierarchy is that trucks get priority over personal automobiles for scarce curbside parking. • 公交车并不是新鲜事物,它在城市中一直肩负着至关重要的商业功能 • 绿色交通层次结构有一个重要观点,即:由于路边车位较少,因此提倡多使用公交车,而不是私人小汽车。

  7. Green transportation hierarquy 绿色交通层次结构 • Other policies that would reflect and reinforce the green transportation hierarchy include the pricing of on-street parking, tolls on bridges and tunnels, congestion pricing, and parking policies that prioritize commercial needs over personal autos • 其他可反映并增强绿色交通层次结构的政策还包括:如何对路边停车进行定价、如何对过桥和隧道征收费用、拥堵时如何定价、如何制定停车政策以使商业需要优先于私人汽车。

  8. The challenge 挑战 • It will be impossible to provide space for cars • Parking space will be a big problem for China cities very soon • Engines and cleaner fuel will not reduce significantly the air contamination • 无法为汽车提供更多空间 • 中国城市很快将面临停车空间这一大难题 • 发动机和清洁燃料并不会显著降低空气污染程度

  9. Challenge 挑战 • Need to develop policies towards green transportation • Non motorized transportation • Pedestrians • Bicycles • Better quality public transportation • Better vehicles, better services • High quality BRT • 需要制定相应政策以发展绿色交通 • 倡导非机动车交通 • 行人 • 自行车 • 改善公共交通质量 • 改进车辆设施、完善公交服务 • 推出优质的快速公交系统 (BRT)

  10. Air Quality 空气质量 • Most of air contamination is caused by mobile sources. In Mexico City 84% of air contamination is caused by transportation and cars are the main contributors to this contamination. • 机动车尾气是空气污染的主要来源。在墨西哥,84% 的城市空气污染都是由交通造成的,而汽车则是空气污染的罪魁祸首。

  11. Congestion 拥堵 • Congestion is increasing on urban metropolis. • Speed is decreasing and elevated roads will not solve the problem • 在国际化大都市中,拥堵现象日趋严重。 • 车流速度越来越慢,尽管道路一扩再扩,但仍无济于事

  12. Public transportation 公共交通 • Public transportation mixed in general traffic cannot have good quality • Traffic management can improve but will not solve the problem • 公共交通与普通交通混杂在一起,毫无优质可言 • 公交管理可以有所改善,但这无法从根本上解决问题

  13. Privilege to car transportation 小汽车交通优先 • Most of the policies around the world privilege car transportation • This leads to a consumption of more space and to more contamination • 全球大多数交通政策都赋予小汽车交通优先的权利 • 结果导致占用更多空间、空气污染更加严重

  14. Sustainable Transportation 可持续交通 ENVIRONMENTAL 环境 ECONOMIC SOCIAL 社会 经济 Mobility satisfaction without compromisingnegatively future generations 满足出行需求不能以牺牲下一代的发展空间为代价

  15. What to do 采取措施 • 为人们出行(行人、骑自行车的人以及坐轮椅的人)提供更多的公共空间 • 实现优质公共交通 • 促进清洁技术发展 • 限制小汽车使用(不是限制汽车所有权) • Improve public spaces for human mobility – pedestrians, bicycles, wheelchairs • Implement good quality public transportation • Promote clean technologies • Restrict use of cars (not the car ownership)

  16. Sustainable Transportation 可持续交通 • Walking – all of us walk everyday • It is the most important as number of trips (30% of the trips are made by walking) • Good quality sidewalks – wide, continuous, without obstacles, not used as parking space for cars or for street vendors • Make always available circulation space for walking • Good lighting and nice and safe environment • 步行 - 我们每天都会步行 • 这是众多出行方式中最重要的一种(30% 的出行都是通过步行完成的) • 提供优质的人行道 -人行道宽敞且连续,没有任何障碍物,且未被小汽车或街道供应商占用为停车场所 • 处处提供可用的人行交通空间 • 照明条件良好,步行环境安全舒适

  17. Green Transportation 绿色交通 • Pedestrian are forgotten in the cities • 城市中经常会忽略行人的存在 Kuala Lumpur – narrow sidewalk Mexico City pedestrians facing traffic 吉隆坡- 狭窄的人行道 墨西哥 — 行人面对拥挤交通

  18. Green Transportation 绿色交通 • Pedestrians are pushed onto any space • 行人空间常被侵占 Bangkok - Thailand Jinan - China 曼谷 - 泰国 济南 - 中国

  19. Green transportation 绿色交通 • Pedestrians need to divide space with cars on the street • 在街道上,行人需要与车辆相隔离的空间 Jinan - China 济南 - 中国

  20. Green transportation 绿色交通 • First action – recover space for pedestrians • Keep safe and good space for pedestrians • 第一项举措 - 恢复行人的空间 • 为行人提供一个安全舒适的环境

  21. Green Transportation 绿色交通 • Reduce relation distance/time to cross street to reduce risk to pedestrians • 缩短横穿街道的相对距离/时间,以减少行人的危险性 Reduction of 36 % of severe accidents to pedestrians in New York 在纽约,行人的严重交通事故已减少 36 %

  22. Public Space, Inc. 公司的项目 Project for Public Space, Inc.

  23. MANACAR – a case in Mexico City MANACAR - 墨西哥城的案例之一

  24. MANACAR – a case in Mexico City MANACAR -墨西哥城的案例之一

  25. Sustainable Transportation 可持续交通 • Promote use of bicycle • Efficient and low cost transportation • Green transportation • Better use of urban space • May be used to integrade with public transportation for longer distances. • In China, space is being taken from bicycles for car traffic and parking • 鼓励多使用自行车 • 成本低、高效 • 绿色交通 • 可更好地利用城市空间 • 可与公共交通结合使用,为远距离出行提供便利 • 在中国,自行车的使用空间正在被小汽车交通和停车场所不断侵占

  26. Green Transportation 绿色交通 • Bicycles are dividing space with pedestrians • 自行车的空间将与行人空间相隔离 Jinan - China 济南 - 中国

  27. Green transportation 绿色交通 • Cars using bicycle lanes • 汽车占用自行车道 Jinan - China 济南 - 中国

  28. Green transportation 绿色交通 • Second main action • IMPROVE AND GIVE BETTER FACILITIES FOR BICYCLES • Eliminate obstacles • Safe parking • Integration with public transportation • 第二项重要举措 • 为自行车提供更好的出行条件 • 消除障碍 • 确保停放安全 • 与公共交通结合使用

  29. Sustainable Transportation 可持续交通 • Public transportation is also a second worry – unless for big construction like metros • 除了地铁之类的大型交通设施外,公共交通也是一件隐忧 Jinan - China 济南 - 中国

  30. Sustainable transportation可持续交通 • Third action • 第三项举措 • IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION • 改善公共交通 • Improve facilities • 完善设施 • Make better networks • 建立更佳的网络体系 • Improve reliability of services • 提高服务的可靠性 • Improve quality of services • 改进服务质量

  31. Sustainable Transportation – BRT可持续交通 - BRT • Supply good quality public transportation – BRT gives an alternative to make it • 提供优质的公共交通 - BRT 是不错的备选方案 Metrobus - 墨西哥城

  32. Sustainable Transportation – BRT 可持续交通 - BRT Curitiba - Brazil 库里蒂巴 - 巴西

  33. Sustainable Transportation - BRT 可持续交通 - BRT • Transmilenio – Bogota - Colombia • Transmilenio - 波哥大(哥伦比亚)

  34. Sustainable Transportation BRT 可持续交通 - BRT • The BRT lane carries 18 thousand passengers per hour. • The four car lanes together carry 6 thousand passengers per hour • BRT 车道每小时可承载 1.8 万名乘客 • 四条车道每小时可承载 6000 名乘客 Transmilenio – Bogotá - Colombia Transmilenio - 波哥大(哥伦比亚)

  35. Sustainable Transportation - BRT 可持续交通 - BRT • Beijing BRT • 北京的 BRT

  36. Sustainable Transportation- BRT 可持续交通 - BRT Sao Paulo – Brazil 圣保罗 - 巴西

  37. Sustainable Transportation - BRT 可持续交通 - BRT • Quito – Ecuador • Photo by Shreya Gadepalli • 基多 - 厄瓜多尔 • 图片由 Shreya Gadepalli 提供

  38. Sustainable Transportation - BRT 可持续交通 - BRT • Jakarta - Indonesia • 雅加达 - 印度尼西亚

  39. Sustainable Transportation 可持续交通 • Car usage restriction • Parking – charge more for space on street and promote off street private parking investment • Fuel taxes – introduce fuel taxes to invest more on road maintenance an in public transportation facilities • Congestion charging – manage demand on congested roads • 限制小汽车使用 • 停车费- 对路边停车收取较高的费用,提升路外停车场的投资效益 • 燃油税 - 征收燃油税,加大对道路维护和公共交通设施的投资 • 拥堵收费 - 对拥堵路段的需求进行管理

  40. Congestion Pricing 拥堵收费 • Congestion pricing (also called “Value Pricing,” “Variable Pricing,” or “Peak Hour Pricing”) is the practice of charging motorists more to use a roadway, bridge, tunnel or parking spot during periods of heaviest use. • The basic idea was developed by William Vickrey, a Nobel Prize winning economist and New Yorker. • The term, congestion pricing, has also come to be applied to anyplace where a charge, fee or toll is applied with the intent of reducing car trips or encouraging shorter parking stays • 拥堵收费(又叫“价值收费”、“变动收费”或“高峰期收费”)是指向在最繁忙时段占用道路、桥梁、隧道或停车场所的驾车者多征收一定费用。 • 拥堵收费的基本观点由纽约的诺贝尔经济学奖得主 William Vickrey 率先提出。 • “拥堵收费”这一术语还适用于其他旨在减少车辆出行或提倡缩短停车时间的情况

  41. We Can’t Build Our Way Out of Congestion 道路拥堵,无法畅通 全球交通系统正面临着一次思维变迁,关注点从以往的供应方技术转至需求管理 Transportation systems worldwide are undergoing paradigm shift from supply side techniques to demand management Demand side需求方 Supply side供应方 Area license or fee区域通行证或收费 Parking control停车控制 New highways新的高速公路 HOVlanesHOV 车道 Congestion charges拥堵收费 Adding lanes增加车道 Cordon tolls分区收费 Public transportimprovements改善公共交通 HOTlanesHOT车道 Taxation policy税收政策 Public transport Priority公共交通优先 Toll roads收费公路 Adapted from Derek Turner Consulting 数据来源:Derek Turner Consulting

  42. Road Pricing and Congestion Charging 道路收费和拥堵收费 • 含义: • 对道路使用进行收费 • 固定收费或按给定时段收费 • 用途: • 增加道路收入、改善公共交通、缓解交通拥堵等 • 管理交通需求 • 管理道路空间,以提高性能和效率 • What: • Charge for use of road • Fixed or time-of-day fee • Why: • Revenue for roads, public transportation, impact mitigation, other things • Manage traffic demand • Manage road space for high performance & productivity

  43. Some Recent Developments in Congestion Charging 拥堵收费的发展演变进程 Oslo Toll Ring奥斯陆的收费环路 • 1970s: Singapore cordon charge, full electronic road pricing (ERP) in 1996 • 1986: Bergen, Norway, toll ring • 1990-2003: Oslo, Trondheim & other Norwegian cities adopt toll rings • 1995-96: Southern California high occupancy toll lanes (I-15, SR-91) • 2000: Congestion pricing of NY bridges • 2004: London cordon charge • 2006: Stockholm congestion charge • 2005: Minnesota, Colorado HOT lanes • 20世纪70年代:新加坡开始实行分区收费,1996 年起开始实行完全电子化道路收费 (ERP) • 1986 年:挪威的卑尔根市开始实行环路收费 • 1990-2003 年:挪威的奥斯陆市、特隆赫姆市以及其他城市开始实行环路收费 • 1995-1996 年:加利福尼亚州南部开始推行高乘载收费车道 (I-15, SR-91) • 2000 年:纽约大桥开始实行拥堵收费 • 2004 年:伦敦开始实行分区收费 • 2006 年:斯德哥尔摩开始实行拥堵收费 • 2005 年:明尼苏达州和科罗拉多州开始推行高乘载收费 (HOT) 车道

  44. Oslo Toll Ring Oslo奥斯陆 Akershus阿克斯胡斯 奥斯陆的收费环路 • Purpose: finance ½ cost of 50 transport projects in 2 muncipalities, with 20% for public transport • Toll ring (white lines) cover all roads in three corridors • 50% of Oslo’s population live outside the toll ring • Operating cost: 10% of tolls • Tolled traffic 250,000/day • Fixed tolls by vehicle class with prepayment discounts • 目的: 为 2 个自治市的 50 个交通项目筹集 ½ 的资金,其中的 20% 用于公共交通 • 收费环路(图中的白线部分)涵盖了三大干道的所有公路 • 奥斯陆 50% 的人口居住在收费环路之外 • 运营成本:通行费的 10% • 征费的交通量为每日 250000辆 • 根据车辆等级实行固定收费,预付费可享受折扣 Source: Kristian Wærst, Norwegian Public Roads Administration 数据来源:Kristian Wærst(挪威公共交通道路管理部)

  45. Oslo Toll Ring layout 奥斯陆收费环路的规划图 Best place for toll ring was halfway between city border and the city center, for economic & political reasons 从政治和经济角度来看,收费环路的最佳位置是市区边界与市中心之间的中途位置 E6E6 E18E18 Four minor roads had to be closed to make ”watertight” ring 为了使整个环路“完全闭合”,不得不合拢四条次级道路 E18E18 E6E6 Source: Kristian Wærst, Norwegian Public Roads Administration 数据来源:Kristian Wærst(挪威公共交通道路管理部)

  46. Oslo Toll Ring Experience 奥斯陆收费环路的经验 • 3-5% reduction in traffic created new space for efficient public transport, walking, cycling • 6-9% growth in public transport • Higher workload and more comprehensive computer systems in the back office system than expected • User behavior hard to predict City Hall area before and after opening of new public transport, road tunnel and toll ring 开放新的公共交通工具、公路隧道以及收费环路之前与之后的市政厅区域 • 交通量减少了 3%~5%,从而为公共交通、步行以及自行车出行开创了新的空间 • 公共交通实现了 6%~9% 的增长 • 后勤系统的工作量远远超出预期,计算机系统也更为复杂 • 用户行为难以预测 Adapted from Kristian Wærst, Norwegian Public Roads Administration 数据来源:Kristian Wærst(挪威公共交通道路管理部)

  47. 奥斯陆的下一步:是否收取少量拥堵费用? Next Step for Oslo: Congestion Charging Light? Proposed tolls designed to encourage & finance public transport 建议收取的通行费旨在鼓励公共交通并为其提供资金 New Fees: + Double fees in peak periods + Free periods late evening and night + Double fees for heavy vehicles. City borders The toll ring 新收费: + 高峰期间收取双倍费用 + 深夜免费 + 重型车辆收取双倍费用 市区边界 收费环路 Adapted from Kristian Wærst, Norwegian Public Roads Administration 数据来源: Kristian Wærst(挪威公共交通道路管理部)

  48. Some Legal Issues in Norwegian Tolling 挪威通行费的相关法律事项 • Drivers right to pay cash (at certain petrol stations within 2 days and at coin machines at some toll stations) • Obligation to inform drivers about toll • Anonymous tags available for privacy • Toll schemes renewed every 15 years • 驾驶员有权以现金支付通行费(两天之内可以在某些加油站付款,或在某些收费站的投币式收款机上付款) • 必须告知驾驶员通行费的相关事项 • 可采用匿名标签以保护隐私性 • 每 15 年更新一次通行费方案 Coin machines 投币式收款机 Source: Kristian Wærst, Norwegian Public Roads Administration 数据来源: Kristian Wærst(挪威公共交通道路管理部)

  49. Time-of-Day-Tolls Fund Public Transport, Cut Congestion: NY-NJ Hudson River Crossings 按给定时段收费可为公共交通提供资金并缓解交通拥堵:纽约 - 新泽西的哈德逊河交叉口 • Peak period tolls raised in 2000 from US$4 to US$5 for users with DSRC toll transponders • 7% traffic shift to off-peak • Carpooling, public transport use increased 20%+ • Revenue boost of $400 million used to fund better public transport • 自 2000 年起,向使用 DSRC 收费电子标签的用户收取的高峰时段费用自 4 美元涨至 5 美元 • 7% 的车辆改在非高峰时段行驶 • 合伙使用汽车以及乘坐公共交通的乘客增加了 20% • 收入增加了 4 亿美元,用于为改善公共交通提供资金 725 buses daily carry 35,000 passengers on I-495 contra-flow lane approaching Lincoln Tunnel 每天有 725 辆公共汽车满载着 35000 名乘客行驶在通往林肯隧道的 I-495 逆行专用车道上

  50. London’s Congestion Charge 伦敦的拥堵收费 • Implemented in 2004 by Mayor Livingston • Successful in meeting most goals • Toll raised, cordon being expanded to a larger area • Revenues fund improved public transport • Automated number plate recognition (ANPR) payment system and related enforcement costs have been high relative to revenue • 伦敦市市长 Livingston 于 2004 年宣布开始实施拥堵收费 • 成功地实现了大多数目标 • 提高通行费,并将分区扩展至更大区域 • 此项收入用于为改善公共交通提供资金 • 汽车牌照自动识别 (ANPR) 付款系统以及相关的实施成本与收入密切相关