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AP Chapter 1

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  1. AP Chapter 1 Some Fundamental Concepts

  2. “A Fine Lady is Grossly Misunderstood”

  3. MATTER

  4. Mass

  5. Mass • Measurement of the amount of matter.

  6. ENERGY

  7. Kinetic Energy

  8. Potential Energy

  9. POSITION

  10. CONDITION

  11. COMPOSITION

  12. Law of Conservation of Matter

  13. Law of Conservation of Energy

  14. Conservation of Matter and Energy

  15. Chemical Property • Does it react and if so how? • A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.

  16. Chemical Property

  17. Physical Property • Any property other than a description of reactivity or non-reactivity. • A physical property is any aspect of an object or substance that can be measured or perceived without changing its identity.

  18. Physical Property

  19. Physical Property

  20. Chemical Change

  21. Physical Change

  22. Mixture Heterogeneous Homogeneous

  23. Mixture Heterogeneous Solution

  24. Mixtures • Can be separated by physical means. • Can vary in composition

  25. Pure Substance • Does not vary in composition. • Elements or Compounds.

  26. Element • a pure substance consisting of one type of atom. • Cannot be decomposed chemically.

  27. Compound • A pure substance consisting of two or more different elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. • Chemical compounds consist of a fixed ratio of atoms. • H2O, NaCl

  28. Atoms and Molecules • The atom is a basic unit of matter consisting of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. • The atom is the smallest particle of an element. • A molecule consists of two or more atoms bonded together.

  29. What is it? Na H2O2 S8

  30. Democritus and John Dalton

  31. HONClFIBr

  32. Metric Prefixes • • • • • • •

  33. Scientific Notation

  34. (7.75 x 10-6m) x (2.07 x 1019m) = 1.60425 x 1014 1.60 x 1014 m2

  35. Factor – Label Method • I do not plan on putting factor – label problems on this particular test. • However you will be using factor – label method on many tests this year.

  36. Convert 152 mL to dL

  37. Convert 152 mL to dL 1.52 dL

  38. Convert 1.38kg to cg

  39. Convert 1.38kg to cg 138,000 cg

  40. Convert 0.56 cm to m

  41. Convert 0.56 cm to m 5600 m

  42. The maximum dosage of a medication is 50,000 μg/day. An IV drip can be set in mg/hr. What should the IV drip be set at?

  43. The maximum dosage of a medication is 50,000 μg/day. An IV drip can be set in mg/hr. What should the IV drip be set at? 2.08 mg/hr

  44. A geologist measures an advancing glacier at a rate of 2.5 mm/hr. What is this rate in km/year?

  45. A geologist measures an advancing glacier at a rate of 2.5 mm/hr. What is this rate in km/year? 0.0219 km/year

  46. Significant Digits

  47. Rules for Significant Digits

  48. Rules for Significant Digits • All non-zero digits are significant.