AP Chapter 1 Some Fundamental Concepts
Mass • Measurement of the amount of matter.
Chemical Property • Does it react and if so how? • A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
Physical Property • Any property other than a description of reactivity or non-reactivity. • A physical property is any aspect of an object or substance that can be measured or perceived without changing its identity.
Mixture Heterogeneous Homogeneous
Mixture Heterogeneous Solution
Mixtures • Can be separated by physical means. • Can vary in composition
Pure Substance • Does not vary in composition. • Elements or Compounds.
Element • a pure substance consisting of one type of atom. • Cannot be decomposed chemically.
Compound • A pure substance consisting of two or more different elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. • Chemical compounds consist of a fixed ratio of atoms. • H2O, NaCl
Atoms and Molecules • The atom is a basic unit of matter consisting of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. • The atom is the smallest particle of an element. • A molecule consists of two or more atoms bonded together.
What is it? Na H2O2 S8
Metric Prefixes • • • • • • •
(7.75 x 10-6m) x (2.07 x 1019m) = 1.60425 x 1014 1.60 x 1014 m2
Factor – Label Method • I do not plan on putting factor – label problems on this particular test. • However you will be using factor – label method on many tests this year.
Convert 152 mL to dL 1.52 dL
Convert 1.38kg to cg 138,000 cg
Convert 0.56 cm to m 5600 m
The maximum dosage of a medication is 50,000 μg/day. An IV drip can be set in mg/hr. What should the IV drip be set at?
The maximum dosage of a medication is 50,000 μg/day. An IV drip can be set in mg/hr. What should the IV drip be set at? 2.08 mg/hr
A geologist measures an advancing glacier at a rate of 2.5 mm/hr. What is this rate in km/year?
A geologist measures an advancing glacier at a rate of 2.5 mm/hr. What is this rate in km/year? 0.0219 km/year
Rules for Significant Digits • All non-zero digits are significant.