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Safety & Health Management System Training. Lesson 5 – Safety & Health Training. Safety Health Management System (SHMS) Webinar Series. In this series of webinars developed under the Susan Harwood Grant, you will learn:

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Safety health management system training

Safety & Health Management System Training

Lesson 5 – Safety & Health Training

Safety health management system shms webinar series
Safety Health Management System (SHMS) Webinar Series

In this series of webinars developed under the Susan Harwood Grant, you will learn:

  • Lesson 1 - OSHA and the Importance of Having a Safety Health Management System (SHMS)

  • Lesson 2 – Management Commitment & Leadership

  • Lesson 3 – Worksite Analysis

  • Lesson 4 – Hazard Prevention & Control

  • Lesson 5 – Safety & Health Training

Lesson 5 contents
Lesson 5 Contents

  • Objectives

  • Identifying Training Requirements

  • Is Training the Solution?

  • Identifying Training needs

  • Training Matrix

  • Records and Documentation

  • Employee Orientation

  • On-the-Job Training

  • Supervisory Training

  • Refresher Training

  • Training Transfer

  • Training Effectiveness

  • S & H Training Resources


  • Learn how to identify your company's OSHA training requirements and general training needs

  • Learn how to create and use a training matrix


  • Learn how to promote transfer of training into the workplace

  • Learn how to recognize the characteristics of effective training, as well as the importance of maintaining training records and documentation.

Identifying training requirements
Identifying Training Requirements

  • Many OSHA standards have specific training requirements.

  • Training requirements can vary depending on the nature of the hazards addressed.

  • For example, a standard may specify the following:

    • Trainer qualifications, topics to be covered, training methods, frequency of refresher training, or requirements for documentation and recordkeeping.

Identifying training requirements1
Identifying Training Requirements

  • Examples of S & H Standards with Training requirements:

    • Hazard Communication

    • Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories

    • Noise

    • Bloodborne Pathogens

    • PPE

    • Confined Space

    • Lockout/Tagout

    • Powered Industrial Trucks

    • Fire Safety and EmergencyAction Plan.

Identifying training requirements2
Identifying Training Requirements

  • Some standards might require different levels of training, depending on the worker's level of exposure to the hazard.

  • Employees who actually perform the work would need extensive training; other employees may just need to know that the hazard exists

  • Multiple levels of training may be explicitly stated.

Identifying training requirements3
Identifying Training Requirements

The Lockout/Tagout standard distinguishes between "authorized employee training", "affected employee training" and "all other employee training".

  • Authorized employee training is for workers who perform maintenance on equipment.

  • Affected employee training is for workers whose job may require regular use of the equipment but not involve maintenance or repair on it.

  • All other employee training is for workers whose work operations are or may be in an area where lockout/tagout is utilized

Identifying training requirements4
Identifying Training Requirements

  • Also, some OSHA standards are performance-based; while others have specific content requirements.

  • Training standards that have performance-based criteria define what training must achieve but do not define how it is to be done.

  • These standards allow more flexibility in the implementation of the criteria than do training standards that specify the actual training content. (See Examples next slides.)

Identifying training requirements5
Identifying Training Requirements

Performance-Based Training Standard vs. Standard with Content Requirement

  • Performance-Based Standard.

    • The Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory (OSHA Standard 1919.1450) states "The employer shall provide employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in their work area….." While there are a few other items in the standard related to training, it is clear that the approach is different than the one below.

Identifying training requirements6
Identifying Training Requirements

  • Standard with Content Requirements.

    • The Servicing of Multi-Piece Rim Wheels (OSHA Standard 1910.177) states specifically that "The employer shall assure that each employee demonstrates and maintains the ability to service rim wheels safely, including performance of the following tasks:

    • Demounting of tires (including deflation); Inspection and identification of the rim wheel components, …" Note the very specific fashion in which content is described.

Identifying training requirements7
Identifying Training Requirements

  • If your state has a State Plan OSHA, there may be specific requirements for those standards that are different than the Federal Requirements.

  • Since OSHA training requirements vary with different standards, you will need to identify the specifications for the standards with which your company must comply.

Is training the solution
Is Training the Solution?

  • Employees should not perform any job unless they know how to do it properly and safely.

  • Training, whether it is classroom-based, on-the-job or self-instructional, is often an effective way to make employees aware of job hazards and to teach them proper and safe job performance.

Is training the solution1
Is Training the Solution?

  • Training is an appropriate solution to performance problems when there is a deficiency of knowledge or skills.

  • Suppose your company experiences safety performance problems such as employees working with guards removed from machinery or not wearing the proper personal protective equipment (PPE).

  • Company pressure to work too quickly or improper sizing of PPE may be the underlying causes of these behaviors, not lack of knowledge.

Is training the solution2
Is Training the Solution?

  • Some experts believe that training should only be provided after all other performance issues have been addressed.

  • As you evaluate the potential hazards during your worksite analysis, try to determine if any other issues could be contributing to the performance problem before choosing training as the solution.

Is training the solution3
Is Training the Solution?

  • Choose Training as a Solution to a Problem after:

    • Identifying the underlying cause of the problem.

    • Making your best efforts to control and/or eliminate the circumstances and conditions leading to the problem.

    • Determining that a lack of knowledge and skill is contributing to the problem.

Is training the solution exercise
Is Training the Solution? - Exercise

  • Employees in the receiving department at CHC have complained about David Rebell (Mark's brother) driving his forklift too fast and occasionally bumping into shipments.

  • The Operations Foreman, Jack McDonald, has had to complete a number of accident reports for damaged goods due to David's behavior. Jack asked Mary White to sign up David for training in forklift operation and safety.

Is training the solution exercise1
Is Training the Solution? - Exercise

  • Mary discovered that David has had forklift training twice at CHC and drove a forklift at a previous job.

    • What might be an underlying cause for David's improper forklift performance?

    • What is the likelihood that additional training will improve David's performance?

    • What might be the outcome if Mary decides to send David to more training without exploring the underlying causes of his behavior?

  • This exercise shows the importance of investigating the underlying causes of poor performance before applying considerable resources to provide training.

Identifying training needs
Identifying Training Needs

  • A training need is a gap in a worker's performance that results from lack of knowledge or skill in a particular area.

  • Training is an instructional experience that helps workers to fill that gap by providing them with knowledge and opportunities to practice new skills.

Identifying training needs1
Identifying Training Needs

  • Even though there is no OSHA ergonomic standard, ergonomic risk factors are generally recognized as a hazard for musculoskeletal disorders.

  • Therefore, an employer has a responsibility to provide training in proper lifting for employees who are exposed to this hazard.

Identifying training needs2
Identifying Training Needs

Your worksite analysis, may help you discover additional areas where training will be beneficial.

  • Accident investigation of a hand injury may show that the employee had not been properly trained in lockout / tagout procedures.

  • Self-inspection may show that employees were working in confined spaces without having received any training in this area.

  • A JHA may show that employees are improperly lifting boxes because they have not been trained in proper lifting techniques.

Identifying training needs3
Identifying Training Needs

  • When multiple worksite analysis methods point to the same training need, it is a clear indication that training should be provided.

  • Also, employees who are assigned responsibilities in the SHMS such as conducting accident investigations, workplace inspections and Job Hazard Analyses may need training before performing these tasks.

Identifying training needs4
Identifying Training Needs

  • Prioritizing Needs

    • Employees should be properly trained before performing any tasks that could pose a threat to their safety and health.

    • Worksite analysis results will help you prioritize the delivery of your training.

    • You may apply the same criteria to prioritize your safety and health training goals as you did to prioritize your company's hazards in Lesson 2.

Identifying training needs5
Identifying Training Needs

  • Criteria for Prioritizing Training Needs

    • The likelihood or potential of the hazard occurring (very likely, unlikely, etc.)

    • The severity of the hazard (death, serious physical harm, etc.)

    • The frequency of the hazard (once per day, once per shift, etc.)

    • The number of employees exposed to the hazard (1, 5, 10, etc.)

Training matrix
Training Matrix

  • A training matrix is a tool that helps you identify and organize the S & H training requirements and needs for each job at your company.

  • Although the format for a training matrix varies, generally it is a grid that associates training topics with trainees.

  • It is important that you select a method that is most useful to your organization.

Training matrix1
Training Matrix

  • Training matrices are useful for:

    • Distinguishing between training topics that apply to a broad audience vs. those that apply to a narrower audience (a prioritization criterion).

    • Tracking individual employees' progress toward completing their training requirements.

    • Identifying the training needs of new company employees and new transfers into a department.

Training matrix2
Training Matrix

  • A training matrix is an evolving document that will change as job positions are added and deleted and as training needs shift.

  • For this reason, consider developing your matrix in an electronic format that can be easily revised.

Training matrix assignment
Training Matrix - Assignment

  • Create training Matrix for your organization

  • Start building a training matrix for your company using the information you gathered from these sources:

    • Your accident analysis

    • Self-inspection assignment

    • Comprehensive Survey

    • Your JHA OSHA Training Requirements

Records documentation
Records & Documentation

  • Documentation includes tracking the dates when training events occurred, a content summary or topics outline, the training methods used, and the names and qualifications of trainers.

  • Training records include attendance records (name, department, topic/course name, date of training and employee signature), copies of performance and written tests, and test scores for all participants.

Records documentation1
Records & Documentation

  • Keeping good documentation and records has many benefits, including enabling you to:

    • (1) determine when annual or required refresher training is needed,

    • (2) prove that training has been provided and

    • (3) determine whether lack of training is the cause of safety performance issues.

Records documentation2
Records & Documentation

  • Many OSHA standards that require safety and health training have specific documentation and recordkeeping requirements.

  • These requirements may vary with each standard so you will need to consult each standard for details.

  • At the very least, obtain the participant's name and signature, the training date, the contents or summary of the training session, and the trainer's name and qualifications.

  • As you learned earlier, some OSHA standards even specify that certain topics be covered.

  • While the length of time that training records must be kept varies, it is best to keep them for at least three years.

Employee orientation
Employee Orientation

  • Employee orientation is a good way to provide much of the initial safety and health training that may be required, particularly if participation is mandatory for all employees.

  • If your organization already has an orientation for new employees that covers items such as company benefits and work hours, consider including a safety and health training component.

  • If your company's training matrix contains safety topics that are required for everyone, then these topics are good candidates for orientation.

Employee orientation1
Employee Orientation

  • New Employee Orientation is a good place to discuss your company's S & H Policy, management's commitment to safety and health, and ways in which employees are encouraged to participate in the SHMS.

  • This is the employee's first opportunity and impression of your organization's safety and health program.

On the job training
On the Job Training

  • On-the-job training (OJT), as its name implies, occurs within the context of the work environment.

  • A supervisor or other qualified personnel delivers it, often providing opportunities for hands-on practice with close supervision.

  • While the delivery format is generally informal, the content and learning activities should be consistent for all trainees.

  • Training checklists can help ensure this consistency. Being contextual, OJT provides a high degree of training transfer (discussed later), relevance and applicability.

On the job training1
On the Job Training

  • On-the-job training can be a good method to deliver content that is specific for a particular department and would not be covered during general employee orientation. For example, supervisors should develop a checklist for OJT topics for their departments, which might include:

    • Hazards associated with specific chemicals used in the department.

    • Safe usage, handling and maintenance of tools, supplies and equipment (including PPE).

    • Proper procedures for safe performance of tasks and jobs and handling emergencies.

On the job training2
On the Job Training

  • OJT offers opportunities to increase employee participation in the SHMS.

  • Seasoned employees with expertise in certain areas can help develop the departmental OJT checklist and ones who perform their jobs in an exemplary manner can help train others.

On the job training3
On the Job Training

  • When is OJT appropriate?

    • When new employees (or transfers) enter a department where specific knowledge is required to perform jobs safely.

    • When new work processes and equipment are introduced.

    • When employees need hands-on practice with supervision in the work environment.

Supervisory training
Supervisory Training

  • Supervisors play a critical role in any safety program through their daily contact with workers.

  • Top management shows its commitment to the SHMS by training supervisors to understand their responsibilities for ensuring workplace safety.

Supervisory training1
Supervisory Training

  • Understand S & H Standards

    • Supervisors need to understand the safety and health regulations that apply to their workplace.

    • Consider having your supervisors attend an OSHA 10-hour outreach program that covers many of the more general standards.

    • These classes are often provided by: (1) your state safety and health consultation services program, (2) local community or technical colleges, (3) your state OSHA (state plan states only) or (4) by contacting U.S. OSHA.

Supervisory training2
Supervisory Training

  • Prevent or Control Hazards

    • Supervisors need training to recognize hazards in their work area.

    • They should be trained in their role in conducting accident investigations and Job Hazard Analyses as well as identifying hazards during workplace inspections.

    • Also, supervisors are the first line of communication when employees have a safety issue that needs to be resolved.

    • With proper training, supervisors can learn suitable methods of hazard prevention and control, enabling them to deal swiftly with hazards as they arise.

Supervisory training3
Supervisory Training

  • Provide Adequate Training

    • Organizations must inform supervisors of their responsibility to provide each employee with proper training in a timely manner.

    • Supervisors need to know which of the company's safety and health policies apply to their employees.

    • Most OSHA standards require that employees be trained prior to beginning the work involving the hazard.

Supervisory training4
Supervisory Training

  • For example, they need to know how to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogens by reading the BBP Exposure Control Plan before they have this potential exposure.

  • Depending on the organization, they may need to know if training programs meet OSHA training requirements and how to keep proper documentation and records.

Supervisory training5
Supervisory Training

  • Provide Proper Equipment

    • Supervisors need training in their responsibility for making sure that all employees within their work area always have the proper equipment to perform their jobs safely.

    • This would include proper tools, PPE, as well as procedures for using the equipment.

    • Supervisors must ensure that PPE is sized properly and that all equipment is well maintained.

Supervisory training6
Supervisory Training

  • Enforce Safe Work Practices

    • Supervisors need training on the company's safety and health policies, guidelines and procedures established for day-to-day operations.

    • Supervisors must be involved in addressing safety performance issues and taking disciplinary action when safety policy is not followed.

Supervisory training7
Supervisory Training

  • They need to learn their responsibilities in this area and the company's policies and procedures for disciplining employees (e.g., start with verbal warnings; progress to written warnings; as a final measure, apply severe disciplinary action).

  • Supervisors need to learn effective methods for communicating safety and health expectations to their workers and for gaining the support of seasoned employees in setting high safety norms for the department.

Supervisory training8
Supervisory Training

  • Investigate Accidents

    • Supervisors may be responsible for conducting most of the initial investigation of accidents that occur within their departments (see Lesson 3).

    • Therefore, they will need training in accident investigation and root cause analysis.

    • In addition, they may need training in communication skills so that interactions are cooperative rather than confrontational.

Refresher training
Refresher Training

  • Some skills may be used infrequently or only on an "as needed" basis [for example, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)].

  • Other skills require refresher training if circumstances or the work environment change.

  • For example, if a department begins using a new solvent, employees will need hazard communication training on that product.

  • Finally, some skills may need to be monitored to make sure safe practices continue and that gaps in learning have not occurred (for example, if employees are not completing pre-shift forklift inspections).

Refresher training1
Refresher Training

  • Some OSHA standards have specific requirements for refresher training; while others do not.

  • The standards that require refresher training describe what needs to be provided in the training. They also vary with respect to frequency of the training.

  • Some standards require refresher training on a regular basis (for example, every year for respirators). Others require it only under certain circumstances (for example, Hazard Communication requires it when a new chemical is introduced).

  • Also, if you find there is a need for refresher training even if OSHA doesn't require it, provide it—this is just good practice.

Refresher training2
Refresher Training

  • Examples of S & H Standards with Refresher Training Requirements

    • Noise

    • Bloodborne Pathogens

    • Lockout/Tagout

    • Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)

Refresher training3
Refresher Training

  • As you determine your OSHA training requirements, note whether or not each standard has a requirement for refresher training.

  • This information is usually included in each standard, generally with the information on training.

  • You may also want to add a separate column for refresher training in your training matrix.

Training transfer
Training Transfer

  • The ultimate goal of training is for learners to meet a certain standard of performance on the job.

  • This means that people, who receive training away from their jobsite, will transfer their newly acquired knowledge and skills to the workplace, such as the shop floor, laboratory, or office.

  • This concept is called training transfer.

Training transfer1
Training Transfer

  • You cannot expect training transfer to occur unless training is really an appropriate solution to the performance problem.

  • Overcoming the barriers to training transfer is important so that trainees won't revert back to old behavior patterns when they return to the workplace after receiving training.

Training transfer2
Training Transfer

  • Barriers and Promotional Strategies

  • Common barriers that inhibit training transfer:

    • Lack or Management Commitment

    • Conflicting Goals

    • Lack of Equipment

    • Peer Pressure

Training effectiveness
Training Effectiveness

  • Whether you are developing your training in-house or contracting out, you will want assurance that your company is providing effective training.

  • Effective training follows certain established principles and guidelines, which can be adapted to your company's needs.

Training effectiveness1
Training Effectiveness

  • Identifying Objectives

    • Objectives are precise written statements of the desired knowledge, skill or abilities that trainees will be able to demonstrate as a result of the training.

    • They should be expressed in such a way that the learned behavior can be observed and measured.

    • The characteristics of a useful objective are: a description of the desired knowledge, skill and ability (KS&A) to be learned;

    • The condition under which the learning will be demonstrated; and

    • The criteria for determining that the KS&A have been learned.

Training effectiveness2
Training Effectiveness

  • Example Objective:

    • The forklift operator trainees will demonstrate the safe way to operate a forklift in the warehouse by successfully completing all of the items on the forklift operation checklist.

Training effectiveness3
Training Effectiveness

  • Designing the Training

    • Training is well-designed when it effectively and efficiently addresses the needs of the defined target audience.

    • Training can be proven effective if learners can demonstrate mastery of the learning objectives, through testing and/or on-the-job performance, at the end of the training.

Training effectiveness4
Training Effectiveness

  • Designing the Training

    • Target Audience: Consider the educational level of the training; it should not exceed that of the learners.

    • Also, do you have a large population of non-English speaking employees? If so, the training delivery must meet their needs.

    • Or, do you have a large population of persons with disabilities that may need various formats in order to learn or demonstrate understanding?

Training effectiveness5
Training Effectiveness

  • Designing the training

    • Training Design is a broad area, which includes: determining the content (based on the learning objectives);

    • Identifying the learning prerequisites;

    • Properly sequencing the material;

    • Selecting effective teaching methods and appropriate media that support mastery of the objectives;

    • Providing opportunities for learning activities and for practicing new skills and receiving feedback;

    • Testing learner performance at the end; and

    • Evaluating the training effectiveness and modifying the training program accordingly.

Training effectiveness6
Training Effectiveness

  • Designing the Training

    • Training methods refer to different options for delivery of content, such as lecture, discussion, demonstrations, hands-on practice, simulation, self-instruction and more.

    • Select training methods that support learning the desired knowledge or skill.

    • Not all methods are advisable in all situations and some OSHA standards specify the learning method.

    • For example, training for powered industrial trucks requires a number of methods including hands-on practical training.

    • While lecture may be one component of the training, people learn safe operating practices by actually getting behind the wheel and driving.

Training effectiveness7
Training Effectiveness

  • Designing the Training

    • Similar to training methods, training media need to be selected based on the appropriateness for the objectives and target audience.

    • Training media refer to paper-based instruction, computer-based instruction, video, audio and more.

    • Stand-alone video is a good medium for showing demonstrations or presenting lecture material but may be a poor choice when spontaneous classroom discussion is desired.

Training effectiveness8
Training Effectiveness

  • Selecting the Trainer

    • Trainer qualifications are important. Trainers must know the subject they are teaching and must be able to deliver the training comfortably and completely.

    • Some OSHA standards address trainer qualifications to make sure they are competent.

    • You may also consider an authorized OSHA trainer who has the experience and training to teach 10-hour or 30-hour courses in construction or general industry safety and health standards (see the OSHA Outreach Training Program).

Training effectiveness9
Training Effectiveness

  • Conducting the Training

    • Training must be conducted in a way that is conducive to learning. Things to consider include:

    • Physical Environment. Is the room large enough?

    • Room Layout. Does the room layout support the type of training that will occur?

    • Equipment. Does the trainer need any special presentation equipment or setup?

    • Handouts. Are they legible and are there enough copies?

    • Accessibility. Will employees with special needs such as hearing or visual impairment attend the training?

Training effectiveness10
Training Effectiveness

Evaluating the effectiveness of training can occur in a number of different ways (or on different levels).

  • Level 1 - perception survey

  • Level 2 - completion of a written quiz or demonstration of newly learned skills.

  • Level 3 - how well are the behaviors taught in the safety and health training being used in the workplace.

  • Level 4 - how well overall performance has improved.

Management review assignment
Management Review Assignment

  • In Lesson 2 you were introduced to the concept of management review. Now that you have implemented a considerable portion of your SHMS, consider conducting a management review to determine if any changes are needed to improve worker protection and if your safety and health performance is continuously improving.

  • During your management review, ensure that your SHMS is functioning as intended, is adapting to changing circumstances and is effective at reducing workplace accidents.

Management review assignment1
Management Review Assignment

  • For your management review, collect the following documents to assist in the process:

    • written safety and health policy

    • written safety goals and objectives and progress toward achieving them

    • statistics on injuries, illnesses, first-aid incidents and near-misses

    • corrective actions implemented due to injuries, illnesses, first-aid incidents and near-misses

    • worksite analysis results and implementation of hazard controls.


  • This is the end of Lesson 5, please take the post-test and complete the lesson evaluation form.

  • In order to get your certificate of completion for this series, you must complete all 5 lessons.

  • This course, funded by an OSHA-sponsored Susan Harwood grant, is designed to assist small and medium sized businesses in developing and implementing an effective safety and health management system.

  • This material was produced under grant SH-17814-08-60-F-24 from the Occupational Safety Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.