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THE REFORMATION 1517

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THE REFORMATION 1517

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  1. THE REFORMATION1517

  2. THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH • Dominates religious life in Northern and Western Europe by the 10th Century

  3. CAUSES!

  4. Social Causes: • Renaissance values of HUMANISM and SECULARISM led people to question the church • The PRINTING PRESS helped to spread ideas critical of the church

  5. Political Causes • Powerful monarchs challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe • Many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority

  6. Economic Causes • European princes and kings were jealous of the Church’s wealth • Merchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the Church

  7. Religious Causes • Some Church leaders had become worldly and corrupt • Many people found Church practices such as the sale of indulgences unacceptable

  8. Indulgence = Pardon • Catholic Church officials sell “Indulgences” • Sinners were released from performing penalties that a priest imposed for sins • “Buy way into heaven”

  9. Martin Luther 1483-1546 • Monk & Teacher at the University of Wittenberg in German state of Saxony

  10. 95 Theses • Luther writes 95 formal statements (Theses) attacking the “pardon-merchants” • Posts statements on the door of the castle in Wittenberg and invited scholars to debate him. • Theses are printed and distributed through Germany • Begins the Protestant Reformation – a movement of religious reform.

  11. Martin Luther 1483-1546 • Monk & Teacher at the University of Wittenberg in German state of Saxony

  12. Edict of Worms • Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther in 1520 • Holy Roman Emperor Charles V calls Luther to Worms in 1521 orders Luther to recant. Luther refuses • Charles issues the Edict of Worms declaring Luther an outlaw and heretic. Books are to be burned. • Luther is sheltered by his followers – • “Lutherans”

  13. Europe after the Reformation