What is Effective Teaching?. Effective Teaching. What Do Researchers Say?. James Stronge – Qualities of Effective Teaching (2002) Robert Marzano – Classroom Instruction that Works (2001), What Works in Schools (2002-3) Doug Reeves – The Learning Leader (2006) and research
What is Effective Teaching? Effective Teaching
What Do Researchers Say? • James Stronge – Qualities of Effective Teaching (2002) • Robert Marzano – Classroom Instruction that Works (2001), What Works in Schools (2002-3) • Doug Reeves – The Learning Leader (2006) and research • Richard Elmore (talk at Drake, 2007)
James Strong • Verbal Ability – a positive relationship exists between teachers with high verbal ability and student achievement. • Educational Coursework – formal pedagogical preparation has been shown to have positive effect on student achievement. • Teacher Certification/Content Knowledge – certification and teaching within one’s field are positively related to student outcomes.
James Strong • Teaching Experience – experienced teachers are able to apply a range of teaching strategies, demonstrate more depth and differentiation of learning activities. • Classroom Management and Organization – consistent, proactive discipline, routines established. Balance between variety and challenge activities; use of classroom space, aware of trouble spots; materials ready.
James Stronge • Managing Student Behavior – minimizes discipline time and maximizes instructional time; interprets and responds appropriately to misbehavior. Fair, consistent, high expectations. • Organizing for Instruction – focus on instruction, maximize instructional time. • High Expectations – express and clarify high expectations
James Strong • Planning and Preparing – align objectives and assessment, assess, preassess, monitor progress, vary grouping, differentiate, relevant information. • Implementing Instruction – techniques and strategies have nearly as much influence on student learning as student aptitude. High expectations and use of questioning techniques.
James Stronge • Monitoring Progress – homework must be purposeful. Feedback should be specific and frequent, as immediate as possible. • Teacher as a Person – fair, respectful, listens, creates relationships with students, has supportive climate for learning, enthusiastic and motivated. Believes that all students can learn and has self-efficacy.
How does what James Stronge advocate compare or contrast with the 8/42? • Are there others that you think important?
Robert Marzano • Cites William Sanders’ work: • On the average, the most effective teachers produced achievement gains of about 14 percentage points over one year. • Students in classes with the least effective teachers will gain much less. Less effective teachers add little to the students’ knowledge over a year.
Robert Marzano • Three teacher factors: • Instructional strategies • Classroom management • Classroom curriculum design • The act of teaching is a holistic endeavor. Effective teachers employ effective instructional strategies, classroom management techniques, and classroom curricular design in a fluent, seamless fashion.
Robert Marzano • Nine strategies: • Identifying similarities, differences • Summarizing and note taking • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition • Homework and practice • Nonlinguistic representations • Cooperative Learning • Setting objectives and providing feedback • Generating and testing hypotheses • Questions, cues, and advance organizers
Robert Marzano • Classroom Management • Establish and enforce rules and procedures • Balanced approach to discipline-punishment and reinforcement • Relationships- clarity of purpose, guidance, team work emphasized
Robert Marzano • Classroom Curriculum Design • Identifies focus of unit or lesson • Engagement in structured tasks • Multiple exposures to topics
What are your thoughts about the homework controversy? Good/bad • What are some disciplinary or student management ideas that work for you?
Doug Reeves-Successful Schools • Writing and Note Taking – Nonfiction writing in every assignment- • Recognition of Achievement-Display work • Alignment of Standards, curriculum, instruction and assessment – use frequent formative common assessments; constructive use of data
Doug Reeves • Assignment of Teachers Based on Need – low SES schools with effective teachers (May not be so much Teacher Effectiveness but School Effectiveness) • Monitoring and Mentoring-Instructional/Teaching Strategies (Marzano) • Deep Content Alignment- Big Ideas and Essential Questions • Student Engagement -
Reality- Most Schools Teaching all standards Minimal writing exposure Student works for a grade Content areas independent of each other Reading is an isolated subject Writing is a skill Teach the entire curriculum Reality- Successful Schools Teaching focused standards Extensive writing in all areas using a common rubric Student work leads to improved achievement Strong instruction in one area benefits all others Reading skills taught and practiced through all areas Writing is an ongoing assessment practice Determine the most important areas Doug Reeves
Doug Reeves • 90-90-90 or 100-100-100 Schools: • Strong emphasis and focus on achievement • Clear curricular choices • Frequent assessment and multiple chances for students to show improvement • Strong emphasis on writing in all areas • External scoring of student work
Doug Reeves • STAR Model for Success: • Ongoing and focused PD • Modeling of effective teaching and assessment practices • Ongoing professional collaboration • Effective communication between staff, parents, students • Visible tracking of student progress on a frequent and regular basis
Richard Elmore Conditions of robust learning: • Assessment of prior knowledge • Real world situations • Concrete precedes abstract • Multiple opportunities for practice • Transfer of control of learning to student
Richard Elmore Only three ways to improve teaching and learning: • Raise the level of content • Increase the knowledge and skill of teachers • Change the role of the student in the instructional process
Some Critical Questions • To what extent do the teacher’s skills and knowledge create support for a classroom conducive to student engagement and learning? • To what extent are the teacher’s skills and knowledge consistent with the strategies and behaviors? • To what degree are the needs of the students being met by the classroom community? • To what extent are students’ motivations to learn consistent with a classroom climate of student engagement? • To what degree is the pedagogy consistent with the needs of the classroom community?