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Effective Teaching Strategies. Environmental Norms. Be respectful of the prior experience in the room Engage completely Participate in all activities and attend the entire seminar Be accountable to the task at hand Place cell phones in “manner mode” Be responsible for your own learning.

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environmental norms
Environmental Norms
  • Be respectful of the prior experience in the room
  • Engage completely
    • Participate in all activities and attend the entire seminar
    • Be accountable to the task at hand
    • Place cell phones in “manner mode”
  • Be responsible for your own learning
objectives
Objectives
  • UNDERSTAND the key connection between thorough lesson planning, effective instruction, and student learning
  • KNOW research-based effective teaching strategies
  • APPLY the strategies in context
contributions from experts
Barth

Brookhart

Brophy

Cobb

Darling-Hammond

DuFour

Flynn

Fullan

Harvey

Haycock

Hill

Lezotte

Marzano

Mayer

McTighe

Mendler

Nuthall

Reeves

Rosenshine

Schmoker

Stiggins

Stronge

The “jury standard”

Tomlinson

White

Wiggins

Wong

Contributions from Experts
agenda day i
Agenda, Day I
  • CALI Overview
  • Introduction
  • Lesson Planning and Organization
  • Objectives and Goals
  • Feedback and Recognition
  • Effort
  • Cooperative Learning and Flexible Groups
  • Prior Knowledge, Cues, Advanced Organizers
  • Questioning
  • Reflection
agenda day ii
Agenda, Day II
  • Introduction and Data Teams
  • Summarizing (Homework)
  • Notetaking
  • Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Non Fiction Writing
  • Similarities and Differences
  • Reflection and Closing
examining your current practice
Examining Your Current Practice
  • What “effective” strategies are you currently using in your classrooms?
art and science of teaching three broad categories
Art and Science of TeachingThree Broad Categories
  • Learning goals, high expectations, track student progress, and celebrate success (Chapter 1)
  • Interact with new knowledge (Chapter 2)
  • Practice and deepen understanding (Chapter 3)

Marzano, Art and Science of Teaching

strategies
Strategies
  • Macrostrategies
    • Cooperative and Flexible Grouping
    • Nonlinguistic Representations
    • Questioning
    • Reflection
    • Non-fiction Writing
    • Summarizing and Notetaking
strategies1
Strategies
  • Other research based strategies
    • Activating Prior Knowledge
    • Cues, Advance Organizers
    • Generating and Testing Hypotheses
let s begin with the end in mind
Let’s begin with the end in mind.….
  • What will I do to develop effective lessons which incorporate our planned use of “effective” strategies?

Art and Science, p. 174

coordinating our efforts
Coordinating our efforts

Making Standards Work

Common Formative Assessments

Data Driven Decision Making/Data Teams

Effective Teaching Strategies

coordinating our efforts1
Coordinating our efforts

What to teach; standards,mandates, student interest

Monitor learning – Provide feedback

Individual student needs and learning styles

How to teach it

what does effective mean
What Does “Effective” Mean?

“The reflective process is at the very heart of accountability. It is through reflection that we distinguish between the popularity of teaching techniques and their effectiveness. The question is not ‘Did I like it?’ but rather ‘Was it effective?’”

(Reeves, D. B., Accountability for Learning, 2004, p. 52)

And…..how do you know?

most effective teaching strategies
Most Effective Teaching Strategies?
  • EFFECTIVE: Actions of the teacher that elevate or lift cognition of learners
  • The simple question is, “Is it working for you and your students as evidenced by learning outcomes?”
  • What teaching strategies are most commonly used in your schools that DO NOT WORK?
generate hypotheses about teacher a and teacher b
Generate Hypotheses About Teacher A and Teacher B:
  • Same class makeup – a mix of diverse backgrounds and learning needs (ELL, poverty, inclusion, etc.)
  • Same class size
  • Same schedule, materials, curriculum
  • Teacher A – 18% of students proficient
  • Teacher B – 82 % of students proficient
  • ACTIVITY: Discuss with your table possible causes of the difference
teacher and leader beliefs influence student achievement
Teacher and leader beliefs influence student achievement!

Student Causes Teacher Causes

Source: Leadership for Learning, 2005, Center for Performance Assessment, www.MakingStandardsWork.com

planning and organizing
Planning and Organizing
  • What is the value of planning and organizing prior to instructing?
elements of lesson plans
Elements of Lesson Plans

Effective lesson plans:

  • Offer ‘prompts’ or cues for actions, steps, etc.
  • Support linear or non-linear flexible options
  • Are like a framework or blueprint
  • Consider each aspect of the learning cycle (teaching, assessing, reflecting)

ACTIVITY: Generate a list of must-have elements for your lesson plan

tools
Tools

Templates/Formats

  • Allow organized approach to process
  • Generate ideas
  • Provide focus
  • Decrease stress
  • Save time

ACTIVITY: Unit Planning Template

slide25
Optimal learning is a direct result

of effective instruction which is a

direct result of essential

and thorough lesson planning.

slide26
What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, create a positive learning environment, track student progress, and celebrate success?
goals and objectives

Goals and Objectives

What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, create a positive learning environment, track student progress, and celebrate success?

objectives and high expectations
Objectives and High Expectations

In examining 1500 K-12 classrooms, 24-7 consultants found that clear learning objectives were established in ____%.

research on goals and objectives
Research on Goals and Objectives
  • Narrow the focus (Marzano)
  • Not too specific (Marzano)
  • High expectations (TESA)
  • Aligned with standards (CSDE)
  • Know and able to do (Marzano)
feedback and recognition

Feedback and Recognition

What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, create a positive learning environment, track student progress, and celebrate success?

feedback

Feedback

“Feedback gives information that a student can use….so that they can understand where they are in their learning and what to do next.” The goal is to give students the feeling that they have control over their own learning.

Brookhart, 2008

powerful strategy
Powerful Strategy
  • Kluger and DeNisi (1996), in a meta-analysis, found that the average effect on feedback intervention was .41. This means that groups receiving feedback outperformed control groups by .41 standard deviations—an effect of moving from the 50th to 66th percentile on a standardized test.
          • As reported in Brookhart, 2008
managing feedback
Managing feedback
  • Process
  • Content

Susan Brookhart, How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students

feedback process
Timing

Amount

Mode

Audience

When Given

How Often

How many areas

How much about each area

Oral, written, visual, demonstration

Individual, Group, Class

Feedback Process
feedback should be
Feedback should be…
  • “Corrective in nature”
  • Timely
  • Specific to a criterion

________________________________

And…..

  • Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback.

Marzano, Classroom Instruction That Works, p 96

focus on the content
Focus on the Content
  • Focus
  • Function
  • Comparison
  • Valence
  • Clarity
  • Specificity
  • Tone
the bottom line
The Bottom Line…..
  • Focus on the work, process or student’s self regulation.
  • Compare to criteria (work), other students (processes or effort), or past performance (especially struggling learners).
  • Describe, don’t judge.
  • Use positive comments; accompany negative comments with positive suggestions for improvement.
  • Be clear to the student.
  • Tailor the specificity to the student.
  • Be respectful of the student and the work.
math examples
Math Examples
  • “I know you worked this out with your group. Good strategy.”
  • “You could have expressed these (decimals) as 13/100, 72/100 and 4/5. Sometimes you can’t reduce and it is easier to say out of one hundred. The more you rounded, the less accurate your fractions were. “
  • “These aren’t as accurate. I think rounding and reducing worked better.”
more math examples
More math examples
  • “You didn’t answer the second part of the problem.”
  • “Your explanation was the shortest one in class. Can you write more next time?”
  • “Put these fractions in order and they will make more sense.”
  • “Multiple errors in spelling on the explanation. Please correct and resubmit.”
grade 7 social studies
Grade 7 Social Studies
  • “This is too general.” (Response to naming two reasons South felt they should secede.)
  • “This is similar to your first reason. Is there another reason to stay? Make the government for effective, for example? “(Why some Southerners felt South should not secede)
  • “Multiple errors in spelling. Check the text.”
english language arts grade 10
English Language Arts Grade 10
  • “This essay demonstrates your strength in synthesizing—connecting various examples and unifying them with strong overall organization. The thesis is clear; it acts as an effective focus for the silence that occurred when power was being abused.”
  • “Great support. Strong evidence for your attention to diction, style, sentence variety. What a pleasure to read!”
feedback for struggling students
Feedback for Struggling Students
  • Focus feedback on the process. This will help them determine what actions can lead to further success. They will be “learning to learn.”

“I noted that you reread your paper three times and made changes. Going back and checking helps you catch problems, doesn’t it?”

feedback for struggling students1
Feedback for Struggling Students
  • Use self-referenced feedback (formatively) which addresses improvement.
    • “This paragraph had a lot more vivid verbs than the one you did last week. It is much more exciting to read.”
    • Note: For grading, use standards- or criterion-based feedback.
feedback for struggling students2
Feedback for Struggling Students
  • Limit important points.
  • Focus on small steps for improvement.
  • Use simple vocabulary, explaining words as you go.
  • Check for understanding by asking questions….”What is one thing that we talked about that you are going to do for the next paragraph?”
looking at student work and structuring feedback
Looking at Student Workand Structuring Feedback
  • Use the criteria in “The Bottom Line” to craft feedback to one piece of student work.
the take on recognition
The “Take” on Recognition

1. Recognition includes praise and reward

2. Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect

3. Reward works when contingent upon achievement of a standard

4. Abstract, symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards

5. Tangible rewards can be + when used as contingent on achievement of standard

6. Tangible rewards “do not seem to work well as motivators”

_________________________________________

Abstract rewards—particularly praise—when given for accomplishing specific performance goals, can be a powerful motivator for students

Classroom Instruction That Works, p. 55

reinforcing effort

Reinforcing Effort

What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, create a positive learning environment, track student progress, and celebrate success?

effort motivation
Effort/Motivation
  • “Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort.”
  • “Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.”

Marzano, Classroom Instruction That Works, p. 50

school climate to support effort
School Climate to Support Effort
  • Teacher responsibilities….
    • Demonstrate enthusiasm for youth and learning
    • Build personal, social, and academic relationships between self and among youth
    • Respect power-authority relationships
    • Ensure students have hope
    • Teach and reinforce effort

Mendler, Motivating Students Who Don’t Care

flexible grouping and cooperative learning

Flexible Grouping and Cooperative Learning

What will I do to help students effectively interact with NEW knowledge?

student data sheet
Student Data Sheet
  • Review the data from a classroom of 12 students.
grouping task one
Grouping Task One
  • You have been teaching reading to your class of students. You want to put them into three flexible reading groups. Your plan is to work with each group on reading comprehension skills. Group your students. Be prepared to support your decisions.
grouping task two
Grouping Task Two
  • You want to do some multicultural literature circles. You have chosen four books.
    • Esmeralda’s Secret Life
    • Morgan Gets a Horse, Oh No!
    • Walking the Tribal Way
    • A Long Haul in a Big Truck

How would you assign student group membership to the four books and why?

grouping task three
Grouping Task Three
  • You have been teaching Connecticut history. Your objective is that students will demonstrate a clear understanding why settlements grew along rivers. You want to develop some learning options that support your students’ learning styles. Think of three assignments that allow students to use their analytic, practical or creative styles. How would you group your students?
why group students
Why group students?
  • Why group students?
  • What challenges do you face in grouping students?
  • What is cooperative learning?
activating prior knowledge cues and advanced organizers
Activating Prior Knowledge(Cues and Advanced Organizers)

What will I do to help students effectively interact with NEW knowledge?

activating prior knowledge
Activating Prior Knowledge

What do your students already know?

cues and advance organizers
Cues and Advance Organizers
  • Research/Foundation
    • Preview activities
    • Help students access what they already know about a topic
    • Activation of prior knowledge is critical to learning
    • Background knowledge influences what we perceive and learn
slide60
Cues
  • Should focus on what is important rather than on what is unusual
  • Use explicit cues—direct approach
  • KNU (enhanced KWL)
      • Already know
      • Need to learn (based on standards)
      • Understand
  • BKWLQ
      • Background, know, want to know, learned, questions
advanced organizers
Advanced Organizers
  • Expository
  • Narrative
  • Skimming
  • Graphic

Advanced organizers help students focus on important information by providing a mental set.

expository advance organizers
Expository Advance Organizers
  • An expository advance organizer may simply provide students with the meaning and purpose of what is to follow.
  • On the other hand an expository organizer may present students with more detailed information of what they will be learning especially the information that may be difficult to understand.
  • (J.Scott, Missouri Assessment Program, 2003)
narrative advance organizers
Narrative Advance Organizers
  • A narrative advance organizer takes the form of a story. Here the teacher provides the essential ideas of a lesson or unit she plans to teach by telling a story that incorporates the ideas.

(J. Scott, Missouri Assessment Program, 2003)

skimming as an advance organizer
Skimming as an Advance Organizer

When a teacher asks students to skim learning materials, it provides them with the opportunity to preview the important information that they will encounter later by focusing on and noting what stands out in headings, subheadings, and highlighted information.(J. Scott, Missouri Assessment Program, 2003)

graphic advanced organizers
“Graphic” Advanced Organizers
  • Graphic organizers provide students with guidance on what the important information is in a lesson or unit.
  • They give students direction and provide a visual representation of the important information.
  • It is easy to see what is important and the relationships between the ideas and patterns in the information where they exist.
questioning

Questioning

What will I do to help students effectively interact with NEW knowledge?

questioning1
Questioning
  • “We are moving from viewing questions as devices by which one evaluates….learning to conceptualizing questions as a means of actively processing, thinking about, and using information productively.
  • Teacher questioning behaviors affect which students learn how much.

Walsh and Sattes, 2005

research and practice
Research and Practice
  • Questioning
    • Process
      • Wait Time
      • Language Development in ELL’s
    • Content
      • Level (Taxonomy)
      • Essential Questions
      • Increasing Rigor and Relevance

Marzano, 2001

slide69
Questions to Support Language Development

Hill and Flynn, Classroom Instruction that works with English Language Learners, 2006

promoting rigor and relevance
Promoting Rigor and Relevance

Christianberry and Kelly, 1983

promoting rigor and relevance1
Promoting Rigor and Relevance

Overlapping

Questions

Dense

Questions

rigorous questions
Rigorous Questions
  • Let’s look at student examples.
  • Let’s build one together using the 5-8 grade social studies standards in your materials. The focus is the Civil War.
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