Previously……. There are three things you’ve already known….. 1. Celtic people (Britons) in British Isle 2. 450 A.D. “Anglo-Saxon Invasion” 3. Viking Invasion and Settlement language contact Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse assimilation Doublets: rear/raise, carve/cut, craft/skill.
Previously…… • There are three things you’ve already known….. • 1. Celtic people (Britons) in British Isle • 2. 450 A.D. “Anglo-Saxon Invasion” • 3. Viking Invasion and Settlement • language contact Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse assimilation Doublets: rear/raise, carve/cut, craft/skill
What is “Runes”? • An alphabetic writing system • The earliest runes date to the first century A.D. • Old English “run”, rune "secret, mystery, dark mysterious statement, (secret) council. ”
Short straight strokes carved on wood, bone, bark, wax tablets, and stone. Or engraved, inlaid, etched onto steel objects such as sword blades. Household artifacts such as spindle whorls and bone combs. • Purpose: identification, commemoration, messages, and MAGIC!
Origins of runes • Here are some theories about the origins of runes: • The alphabet was probably created independently rather than evolving from another alphabet. • Runic writing was probably first used in southern Europe and was carried north by Germanic tribes. • The Runic alphabet is thought to have been modelled on the Latin and/or Etruscan alphabet.
According to Havamal, Odin learned the secrets of the runes while he hung on a tree. • “I know that I hung on a windy tree nine long nights • Wounded with a spear, dedicated to Odin, • Myself to myself (…) • No bread did they give me nor a drink from a horn, • Downward I peered; • I took up the runes, screaming I took them, • Then I fell back from there.” (138-39)
Poetic Edda Poem https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ziX3T1KOiYY
Three kinds of Runes • Elder Futhark • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc • Younger Futhark
Elder Futhark • 24 characters Meanings
Anglo-Saxon Futhorc • Anglo-Saxon runes are an extended version of Elder Futhark consisting of between 26 and 33 letters.
Seen as paganism in Anglo-Saxon Period https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rqOnSysZQyA
Younger Futhark • Reduced to only 16 characters from elder futhark 像是假的晴朗是殘酷的它讓我被眾人找到，無所遁形
What’s the next? • We also have medieval runes Dalecarlian runes in Sweden later on. • Runic alphabet was replaced by Latin alphabet because of Christian missionaries in 700 A.D. • Runes were preserved only for special ceremonies and mystical purposes
You probably don’t think about this…… • Runes in modern uses • Still seen in some religions: Neopaganism, Wiccan • Used in Tolkien’s • The Hobbit On maps to emphasize relation to dwarves • Used in the Harry Potter series in relation to fortune-telling
References • Byock, J. L. (2013). Viking language. Los Angeles, Calif.: Jules William Press. • Thorsson, Edred. Futhark, a Handbook of Rune Magic. York Beach, Me.: S. Weiser, 1984. Print. • http://sunnyway.com/runes/ • http://www.omniglot.com/writing/futhorc.htm • wikipedia