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Science with TMT The Power of the Planned Instrument Components

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Science with TMT The Power of the Planned Instrument Components

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  1. Science with TMTThe Power of the Planned Instrument Components GSMT SWG August 10, 2006 Paul Hickson The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the TMT partner institutions. They are the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA), the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. This work was supported, as well, by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by AURA under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation, the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation, and the National Research Council of Canada. TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  2. The TMT • UC, Caltech, AURA, ACURA • Draws from three ELT design studies • GSMT • CELT • VLOT • Unique aspects: • 30-m filled circular aperture • Wide 20 arcmin FOV • A broad complement of instruments • Powerful adaptive-optics systems TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  3. Science and Instrument development • Science programs drawn from a wide community in the USA and Canada • 12-member Science Advisory Committee • identified 8 instruments and 4 AO modes • Science Requirements Document • Detailed Science Case • Instrument Feasibility Studies • Independent teams develop designs and science programs for the SAC instruments • Non-advocate reviews for each instrument and AO systems • TMT Conceptual Design Review - May 2006 • “This is a well-scoped project, technically challenging, yet within reach. It will enable a new era in astronomy that is seductive and highly motivating.” TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  4. TMT Aperture Advantage • Seeing-limited observations and observations of resolved sources • Background-limited AO observations of unresolved sources • High-contrast AO observations of unresolved sources • High-contrast ExAO observations of unresolved sources TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  5. TMT Adaptive Optics Modes • NFIRAOS - Narrow-field infrared adaptive optics system • LGS MCAO system - two DMs and asterism of seven laser stars • Diffraction-limited over 30 arcsec FOV • 2 arcmin FOV for AO-sharpened tip-tilt & focus stars • S ~ 0.5 at 1 um (S ~ 0.3 at first light) • Passed conceptual design review, May 2006 TMT NFIRAOS Team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  6. TMT Adaptive Optics Modes • ExAO - Extreme adaptive optics • High-order AO system • Diffraction suppression system - two-stage nulling interferometer • Speckle suppression system 108 contrast achieved on a simulated G5 star at 30 pc in 1 hr. (TMT PFI team) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  7. TMT Adaptive Optics Modes • MIRAO - Mid-infrared adaptive optics • Conventional high-Strehl laser AO system • MOAO - Multi-object adaptive optics • Deployable probes with MEMS deformable mirrors • Open-loop correction determined from LGS asterism • GLAO - Ground-layer adaptive optics • Image ‘sharpening’ (low-order correction) over a wide field of view TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  8. IRIS • Near-infrared imaging spectrometer • ~ 15-arcsec FOV diffraction-limited imager (4 mas pixels) • 0.8 - 2.5 um • On-axis R ~ 4000 IFU spectrometer • Employs NFIRAOS MCAO system TMT IRIS Team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  9. IRMOS • Infrared multi-object spectrometer • Multiple IFUs accessing a 2 - 5 arcmin FOV • 0.8 - 2.5 um • R ~ 2000 - 10000 • Employs MOAO to give near-diffraction-limited resolution CIT IRMOS Team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  10. WFOS • Wide-field optical spectrometer • 0.3 - 1.2 um • R ~ 150 - 6000 • 8 - 20 arcmin FOV • GLAO capable TMT WFOS Team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  11. HROS • High-resolution optical spectrometer • 0.3 - 1 um • R ~ 20,000 - 100,000 • Fiber feed MOS option UC HROS Team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  12. MIRES • Mid-IR Echelle spectrometer • 5 - 28 um • R ~ 5000 - 100,000 spectrometer • MIR slit-viewer / science imager • Employs MIRAO system TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  13. NIRES • Near-infrared Echelle spectrometer • bNIRES: 1 - 2.5 um • rNIRES: 2.9 - 5 um • diffraction-limited • R ~ 20,000 - 100,000 TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  14. PFI • Planet formation instrument • high-contrast (~ 108) ExAO • 1 - 5 um 2” x 2” imager and IFU spectrometer (R ~ 70 - 700) TMT PFI Team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  15. Key advances enabled by TMT • Fundamental physics • 10x improvement in search for variations of fundamental constants • First light • Detect first-light objects and study their physical properties • Intergalactic medium • Map ionization and chemistry from first-light to present • Tomographic structure of IGM and gas-galaxy connection • Galaxy formation/evolution • Determine morphology, kinematics, dynamics, chemistry of galaxies at all redshifts with 5x the resolution of JWST • Probe the dark matter distribution in elliptical galaxies • Black holes • Study BH’s in all galaxy types and resolve the sphere of influence to z ~ 0.4 • Determine properties of the Galactic BH, the DM distribution, and test GR TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  16. Key advances enabled by TMT • Stellar populations • Determine the star formation history in galaxies as far as the Virgo cluster • Star and planet formation • Measure the IMF over the full range of mass in a variety of environments • Resolve bipolar outflows and study feedback to the IGM • Measure accretion rates and relationship to mass of protostars • High-resolution observations of planets and protoplanetary disks • Exoplanets • 30x increase in Doppler detection of exoplanets • Detect terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M stars by Doppler shift • Detect planets by reflected light • Direct spectroscopy of massive planets • Characterize exoplanet atmospheres by absorption spectroscopy • The Solar System • Direct detection of sub-km TNOs • Atmospheric and surface chemistry of outer solar system objects TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  17. Cosmology and Fundamental Physics- The nature of dark matter and dark energy What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy? Many theories - some predict variation of fundamental parameters. • Wavelengths in multiplets of redshifted UV lines in quasar spectra are sensitive to and to . • A decade of study with 10m-class telescopes has hinted at variations: • Mixed results for variation of . • Tentative (3.5) evidence for variability of . • HROS will provide a definitive resolution. Wavelength residuals seen in QSO spectra vs. sensitivity coefficient. Positive slope indicates variation of . (Reinhold et al. 2006) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  18. The Early Universe and First Light- The first luminous objects • TMT should detect the first luminous objects- and will study the physics of objects found with JWST: • Detection of He II emission would confirm the primordial nature of these objects. • With IRIS and IRMOS, we will be able to study the flux distribution of sources, and the size and topology of the ionization region. • IRMOS will reach ~ 2x10-20 erg s-1 cm-2 for 25 mas sources in 4 hrs (an order of magnitude fainter than JWST) Schaerer 2002 TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  19. The Intergalactic Medium- Probing beyond z ~ 7 • NIRES will use adaptive optics and infrared spectroscopy to probe the evolution of the IGM beyond z ~ 7: • CIV, OI, CII lines are not affected by the Lyman- forest. • Gamma ray bursts could provide high redshift beacons. Lyman limit Lyb Lya SiII CII SiIV SiII CIV Lya Lybem NV Lya forest CIV SiIV TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  20. The Intergalactic Medium- Tomography of the baryonic structure • WFOS will use multi-object spectroscopy of background galaxies to map the structure of IGM during the peak epoch of galaxy formation (z ~ 2 - 3.5). • This will elucidate the relationship between galaxies and the IGM. Simulated TMT observation with R = 24 source galaxy (WFOS-HIA team). Simulation of dark matter structure at z = 3. (R. Cen, Princeton Univ.) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  21. Galaxy Formation and Evolution- Detecting the first galaxies • IRMOS will be able to detect galaxies at very high redshift: • Ly- detectable to z > 12. • z ~ 15 should be detectable by placing IFUs on caustics of gravitational lens systems. • Adaptive optics is critical for these small objects. • There are potentially many objects per TMT field of view, depending on the transparency of the intergalactic medium. TMT IRMOS-UFHIA team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  22. Galaxy Formation and Evolution- Detailed mapping of high-redshift galaxies • IRIS and IRMOS will probe chemistry and dynamics of high-redshift galaxies and study the assembly of galaxies with 100 pc resolution. • Multiple deployable IFUs will provide statistically significant samples. • Key questions: • How does the age of the stellar population compare to the dynamical age of the galaxy? • How do star formation modes relate to the dynamical state? • How do massive galaxies of old stellar populations form and evolve? • How does the Hubble sequence arise? • How do bars, bulges,disks form? • How important is feedback? J. Larkin TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  23. Galaxy Formation and Evolution- Physics of galaxy formation • IRIS and IRMOS will map the physical state of galaxies over the redshift range where the bulk of galaxy assembly occurs: • Star formation rate • Metallicity maps • Extinction maps • Dynamical Masses • Gas kinematics • Synergy with ALMA: • Molecular emission z = 0 z = 2.5 z = 5.5 TMT IRMOS-UFHIA team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  24. Galaxy Formation and Evolution- Dark matter distribution • WFOS can measure radial velocities for virtually all globular clusters in Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies. • This will allow us to probe the dark matter distribution in these massive galaxies. M49 M49 TMT Keck TMT WFOS-HIA team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  25. Black holes and Active Galactic Nuclei- Evolution and the galaxy - BH connection • IRIS will determine black hole masses over a wide range of galaxy types, masses and redshifts: • It can resolve the region of influence of a 109 M BH to z ~ 0.4 using adaptive optics. • Key questions: • When did the first super-massive BHs form? • How do BH properties and growth rate depend on the environment? • How do BHs evolve dynamically? • How do BHs feed? CFA Redshift Survey galaxies TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  26. Black Holes and Active Galactic Nuclei- The galactic center • IRIS will map stellar orbits in the galactic center with exquisite precision: • This will allow us to probe the gravitational potential and study the nature of dark matter on small scales. • It will provide a precise measurement of the black hole mass, galactic constants, and will detect relativistic effects. A. Ghez, UCLA TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  27. Stellar Populations in the Local Universe- Stellar archaeology • IRIS and HROS will determine the star formation history in galaxies out to the Virgo cluster: • Adaptive optics will allow photometry of resolved stellar populations in crowded fields. • This will give star-formation history and metallicity in a wide range of environments. • High-resolution spectroscopy will provide element abundances. • Complimentary to high-z galaxy studies. Simulated M32 CMD with TMT MCAO. The red, blue and green lines represent three input stellar populations. (K. Olsen, NOAO) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  28. Stellar Populations in the Local Universe- Dynamics of halo stars • HROS will use multi-object spectroscopy of thousands of stars to map the dynamical states of stellar populations: • This will allow us to test theories of structure formation on sub-galactic scales. • By comparison with models, one can infer the merger history of nearby galaxies. N-body simulations of satellite accretion (TMT WFOS-HIA team, Bullock & Johnstone 2005). TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  29. Evolution of Star Clusters and the IMF • IRIS will allow us to determine the initial mass function in star clusters from < 1 to 100 M in a range of stellar environments: • IFU imaging/spectroscopy at the diffraction limit with MCAO. AO image of star field in M31 from Gemini/Altair. TMT’s MCAO will provide better psf uniformity, higher Strehl ratios, 4x sharper images and ~ 20x deeper imaging (TMT IRIS team). TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  30. Physics of Star and Planet Formation- Bipolar outflows • IRMOS will allow us to study the physical conditions in star-forming regions: • Resolve bipolar outflows using adaptive optics and study their interaction with the ISM in galactic star-forming regions. • Investigate feedback from protostars to the molecular cloud. • Study many Herbig Haro objects at a time using deployable IFUs. • Will compliment submm observations with ALMA. Perseus star-forming region (TMT IRMOS-CIT team) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  31. Physics of Star and Planet Formation- Young stellar objects • NIRES will be able to characterize essentially all young stellar objects in nearby star-forming complexes: • High-resolution spectra of the CO fundamental line will allow mass accretion rates to be derived. TMT NIRES team TMT flux limit (500s, R=100,000, s/n = 50) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  32. Physics of Star and Planet Formation- Protoplanetary disks • MIRES will resolve the inner regions of protoplanetary disks to study abundances, chemistry, kinematics and planet formation dynamics: • Determine physical properties of the disk and detect gaps produced by planets • Synergy with ALMA, JWST. G. Bryden & J. Najita G. Bryden TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  33. Physics of Star and Planet Formation- Planet formation • MIRES will be able to image protoplanetary disks and detect features produced by planets: • TMT will have 5x the resolution of JWST. Simulation of Solar System protoplanetary disk (Liou & Zook 1999) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  34. Doppler Detection of Extrasolar Planets • HROS will expand the number of host stars accessible to Doppler spectroscopy by a factor of ~ 30, andprovide sensitivity to lower-mass stars R. P. Butler TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  35. Characterization of Extrasolar Planets - Doppler detection • HROS will be able to detect Earth-mass planets in habitable zones around nearby M stars: • M stars are the most common stars in the galaxy. Their habitable zone is 0.01 - 0.3 AU. Kasting et al 1993 TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  36. Characterization of Extrasolar Planets - Direct detection • PFI will directly image young planets near low-mass stars using high-order adaptive optics (ExAO) • Arguably the most technically challenging (and rewarding) of all the TMT technologies 4 MJ planet orbiting a brown dwarf ~80 MJ planet orbiting an old K star TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  37. Characterizing Extrasolar Planets- Extreme adaptive optics • TMTs large aperture will allow detection of planets closer to their host stars: • Detection of planets by reflected light. • Probe scales comparable to inner Solar System. • Detect planets forming in circumstellar disks. TMT PFI team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  38. Characterizing Extrasolar Planets- Properties of exoplanets • TMT will provide: • Doppler follow-up of transit detections (HROS). • Absorption spectroscopy of atmospheres of transiting planets (HROS). • Reflected light spectroscopy of “hot jupiters” (PFI). • Direct spectroscopy of massive planets (PFI). GJ 876d: 7.5 M Lynette Cook TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  39. Characterization of Extrasolar Planets- Atmospheres of massive planets • MIRES will be able to measure the spectra of massive planets in the mid-infrared: • Contrast is lower in the mid-infrared. • Strong molecular lines characterize the atmospheric composition. • Spectral deconvolution can reveal the planetary spectrum TMT MIRES team TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  40. Characterization of Extrasolar Planets- Atmospheres of terrestrial planets • TMT will detect the absorption signatures of gases in the atmosphere in transiting planets. • Na, K, He, will be easily detectable with TMT • HROS should be able to detect O2 in the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M star • s/n ~ 30,000 per 6 km/s resolution element - achievable by TMT in ~ 3 hrs. O2 A-band Webb & Wormleaton 2001 TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  41. Solar System Studies • TMT will extend studies of the outer Solar System: • IRIS will be able to detect a 1 km TNO at 50 AU in 15 min. • IRIS and MIRES will provide a capability for high-spatial resolution imaging and spectroscopy of planets and satellites of the solar system: • high-resolution spectra of features on outer Solar System bodies will allow studies of atmospheric physics and atmospheric and surface chemistry • Regular monitoring will allow TMT to study transient phenomena, weather, volcanic activity, etc. Europa at the resolution of TMT adaptive optics (M. Brown, CIT) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  42. Solar System Studies-Atmospheric chemistry • MIRES will be able to study the atmospheric physics of the outer planets and their satellites by mapping them at high spectral and spatial resolution using adaptive optics • This resolution is well beyond what has been achieved by planetary space missions. High-resolution spectra of Titan. (Roe et al. 2003) TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01

  43. Summary • TMT will open new frontiers over a broad range of science areas. • This will be enabled by an ambitious complement of instruments and sophisticated adaptive optics systems. • D4 gain will provide a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared to 8 - 10 m telescopes, opening vast new discovery space. TMT.PSC.PRE.06.032.REL01