Chapter 2. Economies in History. What is an economic system?. It should answer 3 questions: 1. What goods and services do people need/want? 2.How can we produce these goods and services? 3.How will we distribute them?. The Traditional Economy Inuit and First Nations.
Chapter 2 Economies in History
What is an economic system? It should answer 3 questions: 1. What goods and services do people need/want? 2.How can we produce these goods and services? 3.How will we distribute them?
The Traditional EconomyInuit and First Nations • Each economy has its own political, economic and cultural systems • “Time immemorial” for as long as anyone remembers Aboriginals Needs and Wants • Needs were for survival • The resources depended on location • Picture depicts a “tupet” A tent made from whale bone
Needs and Wants First Nations: Depended on land/sea for survival. Examples of needs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Aboriginals • Means “living in a land from earliest times”. • There are three groups in Canada: • The Inuit (north of the tree line, climate too cold for trees to grow) Located in mostly Quebec and Labrador • First Nations: (first people from the rest of land) • Métis: children of Inuit and European fur traders.
Production: Aboriginals • Made mostly by hand using stone and bone tools. (Innu used all parts of caribou) • Men and Women took on different jobs in the household. • Believed in a spiritual connection between land and resources • Spring/Summer: fishing on the coastline, berry picking • Fall/Winter: hunting.
Mukushan: • A special feast for the whole Innu community to celebrate a successful caribou hunt.
Distribution: Aborginals • Everyone helped in a First Nations community. • Depending on circumstances if families were struggling to survive. They would come together and help each other out. • Trade networks were used to pass goods from one group to another. • After the hunt, everyone shared in food and celebration.
Private Ownership • Private ownership: means one person had control over an area of land. • No one owned land in a First Nations community. It was shared by all. • This was a European idea that was brought over from Europe.
Newcomers (Europeans)Why did they come to North America? • It was in the Beginning of the 1500’s • They wanted to own more land. • Their religion should be spread around the world. • Looking for ways to make money. Such as finding new resources such as timber (wood) etc. • Families wanted to own their land and not rent.
A Closer Look:Three Key Resources of the Europeans Tell me the need for the Three Resources and Why Europeans needed each of them? • 1. • 2. • 3.
Production: Europeans • Until the 1700’s Europeans used basic tools and made things by hand. Such as: Butter churn, spinning wheel • There were specialists like dressmakers, blacksmith, bakers and coopers. • Factories began to open by 1700.
Artifacts Objects found from the Past: Here are a few from Europeans around Newfoundland
Distribution: Europeans • Unlike the First Nations, Europeans believed in profit (economic gain) • Most people worked to benefit their own families. • If you wanted something, you had to buy it.
The Impact of Contact:Between Europeans and First Nations • Refers to the time when Europeans first came to North America and met the Aboriginals • What was the initial reaction to one another?
Treaty • An agreement which would help First Nations and Europeans settlers to help each other in the future. • Especially for Britain—see it as benefit against the French • Between 1717-1779 marked numerous treaties between the groups- called the Covenant Chain of Treaties • Each Treaty was different—but most respected the lifestyles of the First Nations
How did the economy of the First Nations’ change with the fur trade? • The first nations people were used to hunting and gathering for themselves. • When the Europeans wanted fur, the First Nations’ people began hunting for the Europeans so they could get European goods like flour and cloth. • The European would move when the animals were hunted leaving the First nations’ people with no European goods.
What were the effects of European settlement? • Europeans wanted private ownership and were taking over the land. No sharing! • Europeans thought that their culture was better than the First Nations.
Closer Look:TheBeothuksAnswer the following Questions: • Who were the Beothuks? • Describe the Beothuks traditional economy. • Why did the Beothuks not mix with the Europeans. • Why are the Beothuks no longer here in Newfoundland?