Grains & Beans Chpt 21 PP550-559
What are Grains? • Grains are grasses that bear edible seeds. • Corn rice & wheat are the most significant. • Both the fruit (that is, the seed or kernel) and the plant are called the grain
The Grain Kernel • Protected by hull or husk • Composed of 3 distinct parts: • Bran • Endosperm • Germ • Bran: good source of fiber and B-complex • Endosperm: largest part, good source of protein & carbs (starch) • Germ: smallest part, only portion w/ fat, rich in thiamin. Bran, endosperm and germ can be separated by milling
Identifying Grains Grains are identified by the milled process performed. • Crackling • Grinding • Hulling • Pearling Further classified by machinery used to mill. Stone-ground or Steel blades Note: Stone-ground will be labeled & = more expensive. SG: gentler, more precise, less likely to overgrind Milling Processes: Crackling:grains are broken open Grinding: grains are reduced to a powder; the powder can be of differing degrees of fineness or coarseness. Hulling: the hull/husk = removed Pearling: all or part of the hull, bran and germ are removed
Corn • Is the only grain that is also eaten fresh. • It use as a dried grain dates back several 1000 yrs. in Central America & preceeds the use of vegetables. CORNMEAL Made by drying & grinding a special Type of corn: dent Colors: yellow, white or blue. Uses: Bread, coating for fried food, cooked as polenta or mush. Flavor/Texture: have gritty texture w/ sweet but starchy flavor HOMINY Posole or Samp Dried corn that has been soaked in hydrated lime or lye. Causes kernels to swell, loosening hulls. Color: white or yellow Flavor/Texture: soft/chewy, smoky-sour Avail.: Dried , cooked or canned Uses: bread, tortillas, tamales & Mexican & Southwestern dishes. GRITS Made by grinding dried hominy. Color: white, yellow Uses: hot breakfast cereal
Processed Forms • Brown Rice: rice grain w/ bran • White Rice: Pearled rice grain Both brown & white rice can be processed into: Converted Rice: parboiled to remove surface starch. Proced. also forces nutrients from the bran into the endosperm. Retains more nutrients than milled white rice Instant: is widely available & useful for time concerns. Fully cooked and then flash-frozen milled rice. Process removes nutrients & flavor.
Rice FACTS: • Rice= semi-aquatic grass. Originating on the Indian subcontinent or in SE Asia. • Used as a staple by > ½ of world’s population • Cuisines range from Spanish to Asian & classical French. • Flavor adapts to seasonings. Texture adds an chewiness to meat, poultry dishes, salads, breads & puddings. • Not limited to a side dish, but may be used in stews & curries: for stuffing vegetables or game birds; puddings, salads, beverages & breads Divided into 3 Groups: • Long-grain • Medium-grain • Short-Grain Long-grain: most versatile & popular worldwide. Remains firm, fluffy & separate when cooked. Can b/c sticky if over-cooked or stirred freq. Short-Grain: has more starch, b/c tender & sticky when cooked. Japanese sushi, Italian risotto Medium-grain: b/c sticky when cooled, best eaten freshly made & piping hot.
TYPES Arborio Rice Basmati Rice Brown Rice Sticky Rice Wild Rice Wild Pecan Rice Guidelines for Cooking: • Rice may be rinsed b/f cooking to remove dirt, doing so removes nutrients. (not nec. for American grown). • May be soaked b/f cooking. Softens grains, removes starch & speeds cooking. • Ratio: 2:1 (water:rice) ratio varies
Cultures that eat rice • Rice pancakes in South India made from ground fermented rice. Day ahead & eaten for breakfast. Plain or with hot chiles • Boiled Rice in Asia. Chinese will eat it 2x a day sometimes 3x. • A favorite in Bangladesh is the spicy rice (bhuna kichuri) which is mixed with cinnamon, ginger and chillies, and served with vegetables, meat or salad. • Pakistan, rice is ground into flour, mixed with milk and nuts and cooked to make a sweet rice pudding (firini). • Rice and beans, Jamaica, Latin America, Portugal, Spain, breakfast, lunch and dinner. • Indonesia & Malaysia cook it in coconut milk. Japan, China, India, Italy, Middle East, Americas, several countries in Asia.
Risotto Italian rice dish that is parched as in the pilaf method. The liquid is added & absorbed gradually while the grain is stirred almost constantly. 1) Prepare like the pilaf 2) Add the simmering liquid in parts, 1/3 @ a time. 3) Stir constantly until the rice absorbs the 1st addition. 4) Add the 2nd addition until absorbed 5) Add the final 3rd to the rice is tender & creamy.
WHEAT FACTS: • Most often milled into the wide range of flours. • Used as starchy side dishes or ingred. In soups, salads, ground meat dishes & breads. • Cooked= slightly chewy w/ a mild flavor. Should be fluffy; none should be soggy or sticky • Wheat germ & bran = avail. b/c of nutrition Cracked Wheat Bulgur Couscous Durum wheat Other Grains: Barley Buckwheat/Kasha Millet Oats Quinoa
Purchasing & Storing Purchasing • Plump, bright, even color. • Fresh grains should not be shriveled or crumbly; there should not be any sour or musty odors. • Grains are sold by weight. Come in bags or boxes ranging from 1-100lbs. 25-50 lbs = usual Storing: • Store in air tight containers prevent dust & insects • Placed in dark, cool, dry place. • Airtight containers & darkness reduce nutrient loss caused by oxidation or light. • Coolness: inhibits insect infestation. Dryness prevents mold. • Whole grains, contain oily germ, can be refrigerated to prevent rancidity.
BEANS Facts: • 1000’s of years cultures worldwide have preserved bean by drying • Beans are oval or kidney shaped. Lentils are flat disks. Peas = round • Beans and peas destined for drying are left on the vine until they are fully matured & just beginning to dry. • Harvested, shelled & quickly dried w/ warm air currents. • Legumes are sold split, which means, skin is removed, causing seeds 2 halves to separate. Kidney Pinto Beans Chickpeas Lentils Black Beans Black Eye Peas Great Northern
Procedure for soaking beans • Pick through the dried beans & remove any grit, pebbles or debris. • Place the beans in a bowl & cover w/ cold water, remove any skins or other items that float to the surface. • Drain the beans in a colander, then rinse under cold running water. • Return the beans to a bowl and cover w/ fresh cold H2O. Allow approx 3 c. water for ea. cup of beans • Soak the beans in cold water the time specified in the recipe, usually several hrs. or overnight. Drain, discard water
Procedure for Quick-Soaking Beans • Rinse & pick through beans. • Place beans in a saucepan & add enough cool H2O, cover them by 2”. • Bring to a boil & simmer for 2 min. • Remove from the heat, cover and soak for 1 hr. • Drain & discard the soaking liquid. Proceed w/ recipe