Foods 266. grains. Grains are the seed or part of the plant that people eat. The main nutrients found in grain foods are carbohydrates and fat . Whole grain products contain all 3 parts of the kernel. Refined products had the bran and germ removed during processing. Grain structure.
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The main nutrients found in grain foods are carbohydrates and fat.
Whole grain products contain all 3 parts of the kernel.
Refined productshad the bran and germ removed during processing.Grain structure
Cooking grains with liquid rehydrates the grain and makes it tender and edible.From Farm to table
People all around the world value grains as an important part their food supply.
Brown rice has had the hull removed, but contains the bran, germ and endosperm = whole grain
Takes longer to cook & needs more water
Chewy texture & nutty taste
White rice contains only the endosperm = less vitamins & minerals
Cooks quickly with less water
Parboiled or converted rice and instant rice have been partially or fully cooked and then dried
Allows the consumer to prepare it in minimal timeCommon rice
Many interesting & flavorful germ and endosperm = whole grain rices that are eaten around the world have become popular in the U.S.
Arborio rice is used for risotto
Basmati & Jasmine rice are used commonly in Indian & middle eastern cooking, as well as pilafs
Red rice is similar to brown rice, but with a red hue & earthy flavor
Wild rice is not actually a rice, but a wild water grass!Specialty rice
Semolina flour is used to make pasta
Cracked wheat is known as Bulgar
Cornmeal is used to make breads and polenta
Hominy is used to make Mexican posole soup. It is also cracked or ground to produce grits or masaharina used to make tortillas.
Barley is often added to soups & stews giving them a hearty consistency
Barley makes a great poultry or vegetable stuffing
Barley can also be used for side dishes, like in this barley pilaf
Oatmeal is a plain, hot cereal that is easy to “dress up”
It also makes a nutritious & flavorful addition to cookies & breads
Groats can also be served as a hot cereal, or used like other grains for stuffings & side dishes
Rye flour is used to make rye breads
It is also used in the production on vodka & some beers
Ergot, a fungus which attacks the rye grain can cause ergot poisoning, a.k.a. St. Anthony’s fire, and is linked to hysterical symptoms of young women that spurred the Salem witch trials!
Can be added to soups & stews
Can be the base of both hot side dishes or cold salads
Works well as a stuffing base
Buckwheat flour can be used in both quick breads & yeast breads, and in cereals
Buckwheat (Soba) noodles play an important role in Japanese & Korean cuisine
Buckwheat “porridge” has been a common peasant food in western Asia & Eastern Europe
Starch is a germ and endosperm = whole grain complex carbohydrate stored in plants
Cereal grains, like rice & barley are high in starch
Cooks use starches like wheat flour, cornstarch and tapioca as thickening agentsStarch
A slurry of flour & water can be added to meat drippings and stock to produce a gravy
Milk & eggs are cooked with cornstarch to thicken a pudding or custard
Tapioca can be boiled with fruit juices to make a fruit sauce or thicken a pie filling
Many grains can be boiled, like in this polenta preparation
Some are boiled until all liquid is absorbed, others are boiled until tender and then excess liquid is drained away
Many grain side dishes are prepared by braising, or the “pilaf method” where the grain is first sautéed with fat & aromatics before a cooking liquid is added to finish the cooking by steaming
Other grains, like rice, are steamed until cooking liquid is completely absorbed
Although time consuming, the risotto method produces grain dishes that are creamy, due to the slow release of starch.
This method is like a combination of the boiling & pilaf method, where the grain is first sautéed, and then cooking liquid is added in small amounts, over & over, stirring constantly with each addition until the liquid has absorbed.
Butter, olive oil or cheese is often stirred in just before serving.