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Bellringer. A goal of the Granger and Populist movements was to expand rights for African Americans help western farmers fight unjust economic practices provide support for the banking industry enable big business to expand without government interference . Progressive Era. Standards

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A goal of the Granger and Populist movements was to

  • expand rights for African Americans
  • help western farmers fight unjust economic practices
  • provide support for the banking industry
  • enable big business to expand without government interference
progressive era
Progressive Era


Identify significant religious, philosophical, and social reform movements of the nineteenth century and their impact on American society

Explain the origins and accomplishments of the Progressive movement

Identify and describe the perspectives of Social Darwinists

Learning Targets

I can assess the goals, successes, and failures of the progressive movement.

I can describe factors causing economic inequality, including the concept of Social Darwinism.

Essential Question (exit slip)

Argue whether Social Darwinism was an acceptable justification for economic inequalities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

the political and religious roots of progressivism
The Political and Religious Roots of Progressivism
  • Populism: improve conditions for farmers and industrial workers, curb the power of big business, make government more accessible
  • Social Gospel: a religious movement of the late 1800s based on the idea that social reform and Christianity go hand in hand
  • Social Darwinists believed the fittest individuals—and corporations—would thrive, while others would fall behind.
    • They asserted that the concentration of wealth and power in the hands of business owners and monopolies reflected the natural order.
    • Progressives strongly opposed Social Darwinism
social darwinism vs progressivism 4w
Social Darwinism vs. Progressivism (4w)
  • Write a dialogue involving six people on the topic of the unequal distribution of wealth and what government should (or should not) do about it. The six individuals are Andrew Carnegie, Edward Bellamy, Henry Demarest Lloyd, William Graham Sumner, Henry George, and YOU.
  • Be sure to have each person say enough to convince the reader (ME!) that you understand their position and their beliefs as a Social Darwinist or a Progressive.
What problem do you see represented in the small photograph?
  • The large photograph depicts one action taken to address this problem. What do you see here?
  • What are the boys’ demands?
  • What other solutions might progressives have proposed to address this problem?
social reforms
Social Reforms
  • Problems
    • poor living conditions
    • garbage in the streets
    • children working instead of attending school
    • unfair treatment in the justice system; dangerous work conditions
  • Proposed solutions and strategies
    • provide safer housing
    • make cities cleaner
    • keep children out of factories and in school
    • improve the justice system
    • provide safer working conditions
  • Enacted reforms and solutions:
    • Tenement House Act
    • city trash collectors (White Wings)
    • child labor laws
    • National Child Labor Committee
    • creation of new high schools
    • establishment of a juvenile justice system
    • limits on work hours for women
    • workers’ compensation laws
social reform living image
Social Reform – Living Image

Step 1 - ID the character.

Joe: the boy holding the sign “We only ask for justice”

Charlie: the boy holding the sign “We want to go to school”

Dave: the boy holding the sign “More school, less hospitalization”

Florence Kelly: founder of the National Child Labor Committee

Jane Addams: active member of the National Child Labor Committee

Step 2 Discuss the questions for your character. Make sure everyone can answer your character’s questions so that everyone is prepared to be the actor.

Questions for boys holding protest signs:

• What is your name?

• How old are you?

• What is work like for you in the factory?

• What problem does your protest sign refer to?

• What do you believe should be done to solve that problem?

• Who is supporting you in your protest today?

Questions for Florence Kelly and Jane Addams:

• What is your name?

• Why are you here today?

• What problems do these boys face while working in the textile factory?

• What solutions do you propose to address these problems?

• Have you been successful in your attempts to solve these problems?

One actor from each group should now stand in the appropriate location in front of the screen, taking on their character's posture and facial expression.

The actors portraying Florence Kelly and Jane Adams stand on either side of the boys.

Look at the “Before” illustration in this cartoon. What problem might this represent?
  • The man is Robert LaFollette. What type of job might he have?
  • What type of reforms may LaFollette have instituted to get from the “Before” illustration to the “After” illustration? How can you tell?
political reforms
Political Reforms
  • Problems:
    • corrupt local government
    • bribery of elected officials
    • political machines controlled elections
    • Corrupt state government
    • average citizens lacked power
  • Proposed solutions and strategies:
    • improve city government
    • elect reform-minded mayors
    • Restructure city government
    • improve the election process
    • Elect reform-minded governors
  • Enacted reforms and solutions:
    • establishment of a minimum wage for city workers
    • improvement of city services
    • expansion of parks and playgrounds
    • Creation of city managers and city commission
    • adoption of the secret ballot, direct primary, recall, initiative, and referendum
    • limit power of railroads
    • implementation of eight-hour workday for women
Slide 1: Personality, Background, And Reform Programs

Theodore Roosevelt, 1901–1909

• impulsive and physically active

• served in New York’s state assembly; was McKinley’s vice president

• Square Deal for all Americans

William Taft, 1909–1913

• quiet and cautious

• member of Roosevelt’s cabinet and a former judge

• continued some of Roosevelt’s progressive reforms

Woodrow Wilson, 1913–1921

• idealist and scholar

• governor of New Jersey

• New Freedom (gave more economic freedom to small businesses and average citizens)

slide 2 how he addressed the effects of industrialization
Slide 2: How he addressed the effects of industrialization
  • Theodore Roosevelt
    • Sherman Antitrust Act - regulate monopolies.
    • Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
    • Helped end 1902 coal strike
    • creation of the U.S. Forest Service - 150 million acres of national forests.
  • William Taft
    • 90 lawsuits against trusts.
    • prosecuted trusts that limited trade.
    • Children’s Bureau in the Department of Labor
    • eight-hour workday for government employees.
    • added 2.7 million acres to the National Wildlife Refuge System.
  • Woodrow Wilson
    • Clayton Antitrust Act - harder for trusts to form
    • Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
    • eight-hour workday for railroad workers.
    • creation of the National Park Service to manage national parks for preservation and public use.
slide 3 progressive reforms made by the national government during his presidency
Slide 3: Progressive Reforms made by the national government during his presidency.
  • Theodore Roosevelt
    • supported women’s suffrage when he ran for president in 1912.
  • William Taft
    • Called for reform of the banking system
    • Congress proposed the 16th Amendment - federal income tax,
    • Congress passed the 17th Amendment - direct election of senators
  • Woodrow Wilson
    • Federal Reserve System created in 1913 to stabilize the banking system.
    • 16th & 17th amendments were ratified
    • Underwood Tariff Act, which lowered tariffs, was passed.
    • 18th Amendment ratified - prohibition of alcohol
    • 19th Amendment ratified - votes for women
class vote
Class Vote
  • If you were going to a party, which of these presidents would you bring as your guest? Why?
  • If you needed something done immediately, which president would you go to? Why?
  • Which president deserves the most credit for promoting progressive goals in national policies?
  • Which progressive president deserves the most credit for addressing the effects of industrialization?
  • Which progressive president deserves the most credit for reforming the national government?