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Bellringer. List the two things that make up the cell membrane. What does it mean to be selectively permeable?. From the lab, Order of the items…. Biggest: ? Smallest: ? Where do the pores fit in?. Sizes of Molecules…. Water (H 2 O) Iodine (I 2 K) Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )

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bellringer
Bellringer
  • List the two things that make up the cell membrane.
  • What does it mean to be selectively permeable?
from the lab order of the items
From the lab, Order of the items…
  • Biggest: ?
  • Smallest: ?
  • Where do the pores fit in?
sizes of molecules
Sizes of Molecules…
  • Water (H2O)
  • Iodine (I2K)
  • Glucose (C6H12O6)
  • Food Coloring (~450 atoms)
  • Starch (~1000 atoms)

So…how big are the pores of the membrane? Make an estimate (with an explanation) on the back side of your questions!!!

fluid mosaic model
Fluid Mosaic Model
  • http://www.susanahalpine.com/anim/Life/memb.htm
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULR79TiUj80
role of the membrane
Role of the membrane?
  • Selective permeability
roles of the membrane proteins
Roles of the membrane proteins
  • Move stuff across the membrane that can’t get across on its own
  • Recognition – like nametags
  • Receptors – trigger cellular responses
  • Enzymes
cell membrane
Cell Membrane
  • Cell Membrane Animation
  • Made of phospholipids and proteins
  • Molecules move into and out of a cell through the cell membrane
  • The cell membrane is selectively permeable
  • How certain molecules move through the cell is called cell transport
    • Passive Transport
    • Active Transport
questions
Questions
  • What happens when you spray air freshener or perfume?
  • What happens when you put food coloring in water?
  • THIS IS DIFFUSION!!!! Diffusion is also one way things are transported across the cell membrane
what is concentration
What is concentration?
  • Amount of solute in a certain amount of solvent…think about kool-aid…
    • Solvent – what does the dissolving (liquid)
    • Solute – what is dissolved in the solvent
    • Which is more concentrated?
passive transport
Passive Transport
  • Particles move from high concentration to low concentration
  • Does NOT require extra cell energy
  • Includes simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
simple diffusion
SIMPLE DIFFUSION
  • Movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
  • Does not require energy (PASSIVE)
    • Because molecules are in constant, random, motion!
  • Will diffuse until reaches equilibrium (equal concentrations)
  • Dynamic equilibrium (still moving!)
slide17

Diffusion

Dynamic

Equilibrium

for lab
For lab…
  • To the tube, add:
    • Glucose solution
    • Starch
  • To the beaker, add:
    • Water
    • Iodine
make a hypothesis
Make a hypothesis….
  • Will the glucose move? Which way? Why or why not?
  • Will the iodine move? Which way? Why or why not?
  • Will the starch move? Which way? Why or why not?
simple diffusion in cells
Simple Diffusion in Cells

Diffusion Animation

Diffusion Across a Membrane

osmosis
OSMOSIS
  • The diffusion of water across a membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration
  • No energy required (PASSIVE TRANSPORT)
  • Occurs until reaches DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
    • Equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane
tonicity of solutions
Tonicity of solutions
  • Used to compare the relative concentrations
  • Hypertonic
    • solution with a higher concentration of solute
    • So lower water concentration
  • Hypotonic
    • solution with a lower concentration of solute
    • So higher water concentration
  • Isotonic
    • solutions with equal concentrations of solute
  • Water diffuses from hypotonic solutions to hypertonic solutions!
http www linkpublishing com video transport htm brownian movement
http://www.linkpublishing.com/video-transport.htm#Brownian_Movementhttp://www.linkpublishing.com/video-transport.htm#Brownian_Movement

What About Cells?

cells in hypertonic solution
Cells in Hypertonic Solution

HYPERTONIC

  • Water moves out of the cell
  • Cell shrivels

Low

Hi

hypotonic solution
Hypotonic Solution
  • Water moves into the cell
  • Cell swells
    • Animal cell – can burst
    • Plant cell – builds up pressure on cell wall, but rigid cell wall keeps it from bursting

HYPOTONIC

Hi

Lo

isotonic solution
Isotonic Solution
  • Water moves in and out of the cell
  • Cell stays the same size
  • Dynamic Equilibrium

ISOTONIC

http www tvdsb on ca westmin science sbi3a1 cells osmosis htm

Osmosis Animations

http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi3a1/Cells/Osmosis.htm

slide33
What happens to slugs in salt?
  • Dead bodies in the river?
frayer model break
FRAYER MODEL BREAK!

Draw example

define

Passive transport

Explain your example

Does it require energy?

Examples

starter
Starter
  • Consider the following information:
    • Water, oxygen, and CO2 all readily move across a membrane
    • Glucose, proteins and small ions (like Na+ or Cl-) cannot pass on their own
  • Considering this information, devise a rule that describes what CAN and CANNOT pass through the membrane via SIMPLE DIFFUSION
pumping water
Pumping Water
  • Some organisms have vacuoles that pump out excess water that enters the cell
  • Too much water in the cell = vacuole works hard pumping out water!
  • http://www.linkpublishing.com/video-transport.htm#Brownian_Movement
facilitated diffusion
FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  • Particles move from high concentration to low concentration
  • No energy needed (PASSIVE)
  • Cells use proteins to “help”
    • Transport Proteins
    • Channel proteins

http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/biological%20anamations.html

frayer model break1
FRAYER MODEL BREAK!

Draw example

define

Facilitated Diffusion

Explain your example

Does it require energy?

active transport
Active Transport
  • Particles move from low concentration to high concentration (against the concentration gradient)
  • DOES REQUIRE ENERGY!!
  • Requires transport proteins
  • Includes pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis, etc.
the sodium potassium pump
The sodium-potassium pump
  • Active Transport = requires energy!
  • Sodium is pumped out
  • Potassium is pumped in
  • Animation
active transport1
Active transport
  • Examples: Pumping Na+ (sodium ions) out and K+ (potassium ions) in against strong concentration gradients.
  • Called Na+-K+ Pump
slide43

Sodium-Potassium Pump

3 Na+ pumped in for every 2 K+ pumped out; creates a membrane potential

pumps
Pumps
  • Some animals use salt pumps to maintain a constant concentration of salt in their bodies
  • This requires energy! ACTIVE TRANSPORT!
pom pom potential
Pom-Pom Potential
  • Modeling passive and active transport along a cell membrane in a NERVE CELL
  • What do nerves do?
  • How do they do it?
questions1
Questions
  • How did this activity model passive transport?
  • How did this activity model active transport?
  • Why do the membranes “work” to keep the charges on either side of the membrane “balanced”?
frayer model break2
FRAYER MODEL BREAK!

Draw example

define

Active transport

Explain your example

Does it require energy?

Examples

slide51

VENN DIAGRAM TIME: MUWAHAHAHAHA

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

slide53

Exocytosis

  • Large substances leave the cell
  • Vesicle fuses with cell membrane and dumps contents
slide54

ExocytosisThe opposite of endocytosis is exocytosis. Large molecules that are manufactured in the cell are released through the cell membrane.

Inside Cell

Cell environment

slide55

Moving the “Big Stuff”

Exocytosis- moving things out.

Molecules are moved out of the cell by vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane.

This is how many hormones are secreted and how nerve cells communicate with one another.

slide56

Exocytosis

Exocytic vesicle immediately after fusion with plasma membrane.

ponder for a moment
Ponder for a moment…
  • How does exocytosis fit into PROTEIN SYNTHESIS????
slide58

Endocytosis

  • Large substances enter the cell
  • Cell membrane forms a “pit” and wraps around substance
  • Cell membrane pinches off – forms a vesicle
cell signaling
Cell Signaling
  • Signaling activity
  • Modeling Nerves…
go to picture
Go to picture 

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html

journal
Journal
  • Draw a diagram of what we just did and…
  • Identify the types of transport going on, as completely as possible (there are TWO you should identify!).
  • Provide justification for your selection.