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Centre for Bhutan Studies. The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part III. The Centre for Bhutan Studies 2011. Centre for Bhutan Studies. Part III: Increasing Happiness GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag Insufficiencies by region

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slide1

Centre for Bhutan Studies

The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part III

The Centre for Bhutan Studies

2011

slide2

Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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Centre for Bhutan Studies

GNH Index: Purpose

The GNH Index is formulated to provide an incentive to Increase Happiness.

Civil servants, business leaders, and citizens of Bhutan may ask, ‘how can I help to increase GNH?’

The GNH Index can help them answer this question in practicalways.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Increasing GNH

“Our nation’s Vision can only be fulfilled if the scope of our dreams and aspirations are matched by the reality of our commitment to nurturing our future citizens.”

HM JigmeKhesarNamgyelWangchuck, the 5th King of Bhutan

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Increasing GNH

To Increase happiness, we need to ask a new set of questions.

We have to identify people who are not yet happy.

And we have to ask, where do they lack sufficiency? What must more be done?

This analysis is of direct relevance for policy.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

National GNH Index: .743 using the happiness threshold of 66%

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

National headcount ratio:

59% of Bhutanese do not fulfil the threshold of being happy in

6 or more than 6 domains.

According to the GNH Index, they are ‘not-yet-happy’.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Of course, happiness is deeply personal. Some of these people may regard themselves as fully flourishing. That is why we need to discuss GNH widely in Bhutan.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

National Breadth (Lack of sufficiency):

Of the Bhutanese who are unhappy, on average they have insufficiency in 43% of the domains (roughly equal to 4 domains)

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

3,76,975

1,66,124

Indicator: Psychological wellbeing, Health, Time use, Culture, Ecology, Community vitality, Good Governance and Living standards

1,46,956

Indicator: Health, Education and Living Standards

Indicator: Consumption per capita

.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

First, a birds eye view of happy vs unhappy people. How do their achievements vary?

When the blue bars are higher, it means that insufficiency is higher among unhappy people.

For example, insufficiency in Life satisfaction is much higher among the unhappy.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Across all indicators we see that there is no indicator in which orange bars are higher than blue – none in which ‘happy’ people have less sufficiency than unhappy.

But some are relatively close; others very different.

Let’s look further.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Looking at psychological well-being, health, and time, we see that the ‘unhappy’ always have higher insufficiency.

The groups are closest in sleep.

Psychological Health Time Use

well-being

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Education Culture Governance

In education, culture, and governance, the groups are least different in of Value, Language, DriglamNamzha, and Political participation.

Both have highest deprivations in education.

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In community, ecology, and living standard, the strong differences are in wildlife damage and in living standard.

Happy people’s insufficiencies in community and ecology are otherwise rather close and in urbanization, almost equal.

Centre for Bhutan Studies

Community Ecology Living

Standard

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Next we analyse the blue bars – the insufficiencies of unhappy people – and ask, how can we reduce them?

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Health is the lowest contributor to unhappiness followed by community vitality

Education is the highest contributor to unhappiness

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Contribution of Education indicators to

unhappiness

Percentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Contribution of Living standard indicators to

unhappiness

Percentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Contribution of Time use indicators

to unhappiness

Contribution of Good Governance

indicators to unhappiness

Percentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Cultural diversity and resilience indicators to

unhappiness

Psychological wellbeing indicators to unhappiness

Percentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Community vitality indicators to

unhappiness

Ecological diversity and resilience

indicators to unhappiness

Percentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Contribution of Health indicators to

unhappiness

Percentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Ecological diversity and resilience

Psychological wellbeing

Cultural diversity and resilience

Time use

Living standards

Health

Education

Community vitality

Good Governance

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

More than 50% of the Bhutanese are insufficient in 3 of the 4 indicators of Education.

Education

Ecological diversity and resilience

Psychological wellbeing

Time use

Cultural diversity and resilience

Living standards

Health

Good Governance

Community vitality

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Knowledge (contd.)

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

More than 40% of the Bhutanese are insufficient in 2 of the 4 indicators of Good Governance

Education

Ecological diversity and resilience

Psychological wellbeing

Time use

Cultural diversity and resilience

Living standards

Health

Good Governance

Community vitality

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Political participation

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Fundamental rights

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Percentage of not-yet-happy people by district

Lower percentage of not-yet-happy people

Higher percentage of not-yet-happy people

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Percentage of Bhutanese who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency in indicators

Cultural diversity and resilience

Ecological diversity and resilience

Living standards

Psychological wellbeing

Time use

Education

Good Governance

Community vitality

Health

.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Where do the unhappy people live?

Thimphu and Chukhaare home to the highest number of unhappy people….

Note Chukha and Thimphualso house the highest number of happy people!

They are big dzongkhags.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Average insufficiencies amongst the not-yet-happy

Those living in SamdrupJongkhar, Lhuentse, TashiYangste, and Trongsa experience insufficiency in the most indicators at the same time.

Lower insufficiencies

Higher insufficiencies

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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In Rural areas, not-yet-happy people’s average ‘shortfall’ is about the same as urban shortfall.

This is good news.

It suggests less disparity in unhappiness by region.

.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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Centre for Bhutan Studies

67% of women are unhappy.

About 51% of men are unhappy.

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Not-yet-happy people’s average ‘shortfall’ (lack of sufficiency) is the almost same for men and women.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Contribution of the domains to unhappiness by gender

The contribution to unhappiness in men and women by the respective domains is similar

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
slide62

Domain contribution to unhappiness by age group

Young people are better educated, healthier, and have relatively good living standards. Older people do better in culture, governance, community, and psychological well-being.

.

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Percentage of the not-yet-happy in Health indicators

Percentage of unhappy increases with age

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Percentage of the not-yet-happy in Community vitality indicators

The not-yet happy still have very high and stable achievements in family and safety – except the very young. Community decreases with age.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Note: results are illustrative only

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Contribution of domains to unhappiness by marital status

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Contribution of domains to unhappiness by marital status

The contrast between married, divorced, separated, and widowed is not very big.

Widowed and Divorced enjoy a little less culture.

Never married to show a different profile of deprivations

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Note: The survey is not representative by occupational group, and some of the occupational categories are very small. So these results must be understood to be ‘illustrative’ but not definitive. Further research would be required to verify their accuracy.

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Percentage of the not-yet-happy in some of the Psychological wellbeing indicators

- monk/anim have lowest insufficiencies.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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Who can increase GNH?

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Individuals are linked out

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Communties affect others

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And so does government

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

GNH is created when different groups work to do what they do best.

Meaningful work, services, products

Meaningful relationships, collective action, models

Sharing, relationships, authentic self-direction, shaping own happiness

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

  • GNH Index highlights- Education
  • Education is the highest contributor to unhappiness as per GNH Index
  • Bhutanese have more than 50% insufficiency in 3 of the 4 indicators
  • The highest insufficiency being in the knowledge indicator. Bhutanese experience low levels of knowledge in cultural & historical aspects of the country & in health and politics.
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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Proportion having insufficiency in Education indicators

  • Knowledge comprises of 4-sub indicators which are observed to be relatively low in the country irrespective of any demographic characters

Weights: Schooling and literacy higher weights

  • Knowledge of local legends and folk stories
  • Knowledge of local tshechus
  • Knowledge of traditional Bhutanese songs
  • Knowledge of Constitution
  • Knowledge of HIV/AIDS
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Education is the highest contributor to unhappiness

Proportion having insufficiency in Education indicators

  • Literacy and schooling are conventional indicators for which policies are already in lined for its advancement

Weights: Schooling and literacy higher weights

  • Knowledge of local legends and folk stories
  • Knowledge of local tshechus
  • Knowledge of traditional Bhutanese songs
  • Knowledge of Constitution
  • Knowledge of HIV/AIDS
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Proportion having insufficiency in

Living standard indicators

  • Roofing
  • Toilet
  • Overcrowding

Weights:

all equal

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Proportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators

Weights:

Higher on services & participation

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Proportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators

Weights:

Higher on services & participation

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Proportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators

Weights:

Higher on services & participation

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Proportion having insufficiency in

Cultural diversity and resilience indicators

Weights: Higher on language and participation

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Proportion having insufficiency in

Community vitality indicators

Weights: Higher on donations and safety

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Proportion having insufficiency in

Community vitality indicators

Weights: Higher on donations and safety

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Proportion having insufficiency in

Community vitality indicators

Weights: Higher on donations and safety

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  • Some Next Steps:
  • Send GNH analyses of Dzongkhags and domains to Dzongkhag Administrations and Ministries
  • Review Dzongkhag policies to see if adjustments are useful to increase GNH.
  • Review sectorial policies to see if adjustments are useful to increase GNH.
  • Probe cross-cutting questions, such as: Why are farmers and housewives least happy? How can they be supported?
  • Undertake holistic studies of key problem areas, drawing on existing analyses and new insights.
  • Promote national citizen dialogue on ‘what is GNH’; share definitions, domains, and examples.
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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Part III:Increasing Happiness

  • GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness
  • Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag
  • Insufficiencies by region
  • Insufficiencies by gender
  • Insufficiencies by age group
  • Insufficiencies by marital status
  • Insufficiencies by occupational group
  • Policy recommendations
  • Sustaining GNH
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How do we sustain what we already have?

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  • Sustaining GNH: key priorities
  • The GNH is constructed of 33 indicators covering the 9 elements of the GNH.
  • Think of these as nine offering bowls. To be fully happy, six or more bowls should be full for every person.
  • In future years, the indicators may shift slightly to improve the accuracy of the GNH Index in certain domains, but the nine bowls will be the same.
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  • What does this mean for me?
  • As a person, think of each of the nine domains in your life. Which bowls are full? Which are empty? How can you fill the empty bowls more?
  • Think of your family, your friends: how can you help them to fill their offering bowls?
  • Think of your responsibilities at work or at home or at school: how can you help fill all nine offering bowls for other people?
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  • What does this mean for policy?
  • All government projects and policies are to work together to maximize the GNH Index in Bhutan.
  • For example, a school advances ‘education’. But it can also help children fill other bowls. It can teach values and so fill the ‘community’ bowl, and teach skills so improve the income component of the ‘living standards’ bowl in the future.
  • For example, a hospital advances ‘health’. But it can also help patients to learn to meditate, and so help fill people with ‘culture’ and enhance psychological well-being; it can have green trees and so fill ‘ecology’.
  • A road will fill ‘living standards’. But maybe the community should also talk about how they will respond to the influences that the road will bring wisely, so that they can keep their bowls of ‘community vitality’ and ‘culture’ full.
  • Business managers may consider how they can not only advance ‘living standards’ but also how they can offer their employees’ family life, psychological well-being, care for ecology, and embody good governance.
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  • Sustaining GNH: key priorities
  • Intentionally support existing GNH achievements that are valued from erosion due to cultural change.
  • Incorporate GNH index questions into more regular surveys, to ensure timely detection of erosion.
  • Prepare materials for different ages, region, and occupational groups of Bhutanese on how to increase GNH for oneself, with examples
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The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part III

The Centre for Bhutan Studies

2011