neurological disorders l.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Neurological Disorders

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 16

Neurological Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 121 Views
  • Uploaded on

Neurological Disorders. Psychological Disorders. 10 million people suffer from depression. Mood Disorders. Unipolar Disorder (2 wks to 9 mos) Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode (MDDSE) rare Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent (MDDR) family history is common

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Neurological Disorders' - saxton


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
psychological disorders
Psychological Disorders

10 million people suffer from depression

mood disorders4

Unipolar Disorder (2 wks to 9 mos)

    • Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode (MDDSE)
      • rare
    • Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent (MDDR)
      • family history is common
    • Dysthymic Disorder (DD)
      • milder symptoms
      • chronic occurrence (2-30yrs)
    • Double Depression
      • combination or MDDR and DD
  • Bipolar Disorder (2 wks to 9 mos)
    • Bipolar I Disorder
    • Bipolar II Disorder (hypomania)
      • Dysphoric Mania
        • manic episodes with simultaneous depression
    • Cyclothymic Disorder (mild bipolar)

Mood Disorders

major depressive episode characteristics

Major Depressive Episode Characteristics

  • Onset is in early to mid 20’s
    • but not age specific
  • Onset age has been dropping
  • 16% of population experience
  • MDD in their lifetime
  • 2:1 women to men ratio
  • 41% occurs just before or just
  • after menstruation
depression etiology

Depression: Etiology

Biological Influence

genetic predispostion

neurochemical imbalance

stress hormones

Psychological/Behavioral Influence

learned helplessness/hopelessness

depressive attributional style

disturbed sleep habits

Social Influence

stressful events serve as triggers

depression and sleep
Depression and Sleep

Phase advanced body temperature rhythms

Enter REM sleep earlier in the night

Spend little time in SWS

depression treatment

Depression: Treatment

Medical

Chemical

Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy

Psychotherapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Interpersonal Therapy

chemical treatment

Chemical Treatment

  • Tricyclic Antidepressants
    • imipramine (Tofranil)
    • prevents monoamine reuptake
    • 64% respond well
    • many side effects
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
    • phenelzine (Nardil)
    • blocks MAO enzyme
      • which breaks down monoamines
    • <64% respond well
    • several lethal side effects
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
    • fluoxetine (Prozac)
    • blocks reuptake of serotonin
    • minor side effects
electroconvulsive shock therapy

(ECT)

Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy

  • for patients where drugs are ineffective or that can’t wait for
  • drugs to take effect
  • electric shock to the cortex for less than 1 second
  • creates seizure and mild convulsions
  • takes about 6-10 sessions every other day
  • some short term memory loss
  • 50-70% beneficial
  • 60% relapse rate
cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

  • make patient examine thought process and recognize errors
    • arbitrary interference
    • overgeneralization
  • try to correct cognitive errors
    • concentrate on less depressive thoughts - be more realistic
  • target negative cognitive schemes
  • use journals to identify faulty thinking
  • do hypothesis testing
  • put fun back into the patients life
  • increase exercise
  • takes about 10-20 sessions
interpersonal therapy

Interpersonal Therapy

  • resolve problems in existing relationships
  • identify life stressors
  • work on interpersonal disputes
    • role disputes
    • loss of a relationship
    • acquiring new relationships
    • identifying and correcting deficits in social skills
  • takes about 15-20 sessions
depressions vicious cycle

Depressions Vicious Cycle

  • Must control brain chemistry
    • e.g., Prozac
  • Must reshape the negative thought processes
    • e.g., CBT