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The Periodic Table. Assignment. Read Chapter 1, section 6 Chapter 3, section 4 Chapter 3, section 5. The Periodic Table. Periodic means occurring or appearing at regular intervals

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assignment
Assignment
  • Read
    • Chapter 1, section 6
    • Chapter 3, section 4
    • Chapter 3, section 5
the periodic table3
The Periodic Table
  • Periodic means occurring or appearing at regular intervals
  • The Periodic table is designed so that elements with similar characteristics occur or appear at regular intervals
the periodic table4
The Periodic Table
  • The table can be divided in many ways
  • Method 1
    • Metals (brown)
    • Nonmetal (purple)
    • Metalloids or Semi-metals (green)
the periodic table5
The Periodic Table
  • Metals
    • Most are solid at room temperature (except mercury, Hg)
    • Usually are shiny solids when freshly cut
    • Good conductors of heat and electricity
    • Malleable (meaning can be flattened into a sheet)
    • Ductile (meaning can be drawn into a wire)
    • Most have high melting points and boiling points
the periodic table6
The Periodic Table
  • Nonmetals
    • 11 are gases, 5 are brittle solids, and 1 is a liquid at room temperature
    • Poor conductors of heat and electricity
    • Most have low melting points and boiling points
  • Metalloids or Semi-metals
    • The seven elements that separate the metals and nonmetals
    • The metalloids tend to have properties of both metals and nonmetals
      • Ex: Silicon
        • Metal-like in that it is a shiny solid
        • Nonmetal-like in that it is a brittle solid
        • Conductivity lies between that of a metal and non-metal
the periodic table7
The Periodic Table
  • Method 3
    • Group
    • Period
the periodic table8
The Periodic Table
  • Groups
    • Indicated by the number at the top of each column
    • All elements within a group have similar characteristics or properties
the periodic table9
The Periodic Table
  • Group 1 – Alkali metals
    • Soft, shiny metals
    • Low melting points compared to other metals
    • Most reactive of the metals that are not radioactive
    • When added to water they form a highly alkaline (basic) solution – hence the name alkali metals
the periodic table10
The Periodic Table
  • Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals
    • Shiny solids
    • Less reactive than the Alkali metals
    • Higher melting points than the Alkali metals
the periodic table11
The Periodic Table
  • Group 17 – Halogens
    • All are gases except Bromine
    • Colorful, corrosive nonmetals
    • Most reactive of all the nonmetals
    • The group name halogen comes from the greek word hals, meaning salt, because the halogens are only found in nature in combination with other elements typically forming a salt.
the periodic table12
The Periodic Table
  • Group 18 – Noble Gases
    • Named noble because they lack reactivity.
the periodic table13
The Periodic Table
  • Period
    • Indicated by the number to the left of the row in which the element resides
    • We will discuss the importance to the period # in chapter 3.
the periodic table14
The Periodic Table
  • Method 2
    • Main Group elements (yellow)
    • Transition Metal elements (orange)
    • Inner Transition Metal elements (blue)
      • Are not given group #’s.
      • To determine which period they are members of look at the elemental numbers (atomic #) given at the top of each box. (Expanded version on next slide)
      • Elements 58-71 are called the Lanthanide series because they follow element #57, Lanthanum
      • Elements 90-103 are called the Actinide series because they follow element #89, Actinium
  • The divisions in method 2 will be discussed at length in Chapter 3