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Imogene King Nurse Theorist. Nurse 324 Spring 2013 Jamie Ziemba Maia Novak Staci Wandell. Born: January 30, 1923 in Iowa Died: December 24, 2007 after suffering from a stroke in Florida. Education. 1945 - Received basic nursing education from St. John’s Hospital in St Louis, MS

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Imogene King Nurse Theorist


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    1. Imogene KingNurse Theorist Nurse 324 Spring 2013 Jamie Ziemba Maia Novak Staci Wandell

    2. Born: January 30, 1923 in Iowa Died: December 24, 2007 after suffering from a stroke in Florida

    3. Education 1945- Received basic nursing education from St. John’s Hospital in St Louis, MS 1948- Completed her Bachelors of Science in Nursing education from St. Louis University 1957- earned her Master of Science in Nursing from St. Louis University 1961- completed her doctor of education degree (EdD) from Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City (Chitty and Black, 2011, p 311).

    4. Life of Imogene King Imogene King is a legend to Nursing Theory. Until the day she had her stroke she was a contributing person to Nursing theories and the Americas Nursing Association. She never retired she always remained involved with the Nursing Profession. In her lifetime she received many awards. The following are a few of the greatest received. 2004- Inducted into America’s Nursing Assoication (ANA) Hall of fame Inducted into Florida’s Nursing Association (FNA) Hall of fame Inducted into the Teachers College, Columbia University Hall of fame 2005- Declared a Living Legend by the America’s Nursing Association (Stevens and Messmer, 2008, p 100).

    5. Imogene King’s theory was about patients and nurses working together to mutually set goals that were achievable by the patient to help them attain and maintain health. The key to her theory is that the goals have to be set mutually, the patient had to be involved in his or her care, and that the nurse patient relationship was crucial to have. King was able to do this by the three integrated working systems. (Persons, interpersonal relationships, and social contexts)(Clarke et al, 2009).

    6. Leading up to her theory… Motivation for developing her theory… According to Clarke et al, from Nursing Science Quarterly 2009, Imogene’s motivation was her Uncle who was a Surgeon. When she sought out nursing as a profession it was during the depression. The depression uprooted her family from their home and forced them to move. Her uncle made her a deal that he would pay for her tuition if she went to St John’s Hospital to pursue a degree in Nursing. In 1945 she completed her basic education from St. John’s Hospital and she never stopped continuing her education (Clarke, 2009).

    7. Leading up to her theory… Philosophic Values about nursing and knowledge development… The values King held close to heart are those the same as many nurses; “honesty, integrity, justice, and respect for every human being.” She also believed that the patients had the right to privacy, self- determinations, and information to make informed choices (King, 2007). Imogene King was a life long learner, her goal was to attain or regain health of an individual. She has had an everlasting impression on the nursing profession and the nurses who worked with her. Her theory has been heard around the world and is practiced throughout.

    8. Leading up to her theory… What influenced her? Patients. That easily stated. Imogene King never stopped working for her patients until the day she died. Her theory is based off of goal attainment by the patient and the nurse. Nurse- patient relationships had to be formed in order for the patient to regain their health status. Imogene King was 100% about helping her patients in what they needed help in to better their lives. She was their key to unlock the door to a better and brighter future (Clarke et al, 2009).

    9. Imogene’s response to a someone asking her if she has ever defined the ‘Nurse’s Act’ was… “Not that I know of, but first one needs to define a ‘human act’ because nurses and the clients they serve are first and foremost human beings.” (Fawcett, 2001). I believe that this further shows that Imogene King was committed to her patients being the number one priority.

    10. Evaluation of the Nursing Model Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment was developed at a time when nurses were striving to be professionals. Her theory was developed from the research of the General System Theory by von Bertalanffy and adjunctive knowledge by Myra Levine. King knew that it was important to cross disciplines to get an adequate theory. The two questions that her perspective of nursing came from were: What is the essence of nursing? What is the human act? (Fawcett, 2001) Von Bertalanffy Myra Levine

    11. Evaluation of the Nursing Model Imogene King’s theory does describe the four global concepts of person, health, environment and nursing. I believe this because of her theory behind the interacting systems. They all interact to create who we are today. King’s Theory can be used in any form of Nursing. Obstetrics, Emergency, Operating, or Medical Nursing all involves the patient being the number one priority and all forms of these types of nursing are patient centered.

    12. Evaluation of the Nursing Model According to Clarke et al, (2009) there have been 11 theories published that were stemmed from King’s theory of Goal Attainment. The theories that are based from hers have their own ideas but her skeleton framework of patient centered care. Imogene King was a great leader with great ideas, it makes sense that people are working from her original theory.

    13. With inpatients, the patient may feel like they have to wait a long time, King was patient centers. Televisions area distraction to patients so it doesn’t appear they are waiting that long. In the Emergency Room, after a patient from a motor vehicle accident suffers from an arm amputation, after the patient is stable, the nurse refocuses on the patient and their feelings of loss and decreased self-esteem. They set goals together. Practice Situations Home health nurses, they enter into a patients home and have to make that connection. Once they make the connection then the patient trusts them and is able to make the mutual goals to be achieved. With any type of nursing when the patient does not understand their medication or procedure and the nurse properly educates the individual, this is an example of King’s theory. In order for the patient to comply with their regimen then they have to understand it http://imogene-king.blogspot.com/

    14. Interpretation A Theory for Nursing: Systems, Concepts, Process was published in 1981 -discusses three systems -personal -interpersonal -social -the focus of King’s work is setting goals and determining how the goals set between the nurse and patient are going to be met -King’s work is not linear because assessment, planning, goal setting, intervention, and evaluation and can happen concurrently. (Chitty and Black, 2011)

    15. System Levels • Personal system is when the nurse focuses on what the patient’s perceptions are • interpersonal system is discovering the patient’s role and possible stressors • Social system is used to help determine what influences the patient to make decisions (Chitty and Black, 2011).

    16. King’s Ideas • Clear communication is essential between the nurse and patient • King discusses the progression of progression of relationship building from perception, judgment, action, reaction, and interaction • King understood the importance of monitoring the progress of reaching the patient’s goals

    17. Consequences of King’s work • If the nurse and the patient have good communication than goals will be met. • If the patient meets their goals than they will be satisfied with their health • Growth anddevelopment will be enhanced with successful interaction between nurse and patient • It is important that the expectations and roles of the patient are clear and the nurse agrees with them • If there is conflict between the nurse and patient then this will create stress in their relationship • Communication is essential in order to set appropriate goals and have these goals be meet • If nurse with special knowledge skill communicate appropriate information to client, mutual goal setting and goal attainment will occur ("Imogene king's theory," 2012)

    18. Conclusion Imogene King influenced nursing immensely.  A great nurse is one that treats their patients with respect and dignity.  They not only share medical knowledge, but they also teach their patients about his or hermedical conditions.  Great nurses are taught to help patients set reasonable goals and determine how those goals will be met.  Keep Imogene King’s ideas and concepts in mind next time you interact with your patients.

    19. Case Study

    20. References Chitty, K.K., & Black, B.P. (2011). Professional nursing: Concepts and challenges (6th ed.) Maryland Heights, MO: Sanders Clarke, P., Killeen, M., Messmer, P., & Sieloff, C. (2009). Imogene M. King's scholars reflect on her wisdom and influence on nursing science. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22(2), 128-133. doi:http://0-dx.doi.org.libcat.ferris.edu/10.1177/0894318409332568 Fawcett, J. (2001). Scholarly dialogue. The nurse theorists: 21st-century updates -- Imogene M. King. Nursing Science Quarterly, 14 (4), 311-315. Imogene king's theory of goal attainment . (2012, January 30). Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/ goal_attainment_theory.html King, I. (2007).King’s conceptual sytem, theory of goal attainment, and transaction process in the 21st century. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20(109), 109-111. DOI: 10.1177/0894318407299846 Stevens, K., & Messmer, P. (2008). In remembrance of Imogene M. King, January 30, 1923 -- December 24, 2007: Imogene, a pioneer and dear colleague. Nursing Outlook, 56(3), 100-101. http://imogene-king.blogspot.com/ (Staci’s Weblink)