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  1. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: LET’S GET SPECIFIC Grower Incentives for IPM: North Central NRCS and IPM Working Group Dr. Thomas A. Green - IPM Institute of North America, Inc. Mr. Jim Jasinski – IPM Program, Ohio State University Extension Dr. Rick Foster - Department of Entomology, Purdue University Dr. Kathy Murray - Maine IPM Program, Department of Agriculture


  3. Progress! Pesticide Use and Toxicity Down • Conventional pesticide sales down 3% per year between 1999 and 2006. (Crop Life, 2007) • Use of broad spectrum organophosphate and carbamate pesticides down. (California DPR) Miles to go… • 94% of fish, 94% of surface water and 33% of ground water samples collected from 1992 and 2001 showed contamination with one or more pesticides. (2006 U.S. Geological Survey) • Herbicide-resistant weeds, invasive species, new drift regulations, non-target including pollinator impacts call for more IPM… Bald eagle nesting pairs increase from 417 to 5,748 after DDT ban. - Fish & Wildlife Service, 2003

  4. IPM Reduces Pesticide Risk • IPM is an systems-based approach designed to reduce environmental, health and economic risks. IPM is implemented as an ongoing series of science-based, pest management evaluations, decisions and interventions. • IPM practitioners use knowledge of pest biology and environmental conditions, and technology to Prevent, Avoid Monitor and Suppress (PAMS) pests. Basic IPM Practices • Scouting (sampling) crops for pests and pest damage, visually or with devices. • Monitoring weather, other conditions. • Acting when pests approach economically damaging levels. Advanced IPM Practices • Resolve: Why is the pest there? • Pest-resistant crop varieties. • Crop rotation, adjust planting times. • Reduced-risk pesticides, mating disruption, companion crops, beneficial insects. Pest Scouting Pheromone Disruptor Suction Trap

  5. IPM Opportunities through NRCS IPM Conservation Activity Plans (CAPs) provide an opportunity for Technical Service Providers (TSPs) and growers to work together to identify, prioritize and address resource concerns impacted by pests and pest management activities. Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) 595 Integrated Pest Management Standard offers cost-share rates and technical assistance for growers to implement IPM. Use NRCS Windows Pesticide Screening Tool (WinPST) to evaluate pesticide uses; mitigate if high risk. Conservation Stewardship Program provides cost-share rates and technical assistance for growers to implement conservation practices while maintaining practices already in place. Growers who practices IPM receive credit, increasing their chances of earning a CSP contract.

  6. Grower Incentives for IPM: North Central NRCS and IPM Working Group • Funded by North Central IPM Center since 2006, with additional support from Northeastern IPM Center for IPM CAPs work in 2009-2010. • Expanding to national scope, merging with national IPM Conservation Activity Plan working group. • Over 100 members from NRCS, University Extension, crop advisors and others. • Goal: increase grower awareness and access to NRCS conservation programs for IPM, including CAPs, EQIP, CSP. • Activities include: • Create tools: IPM Tools, sample IPM CAP, IPM CAP training curriculum. • Recruit, train more IPM-qualified TSPs; acquire, share data on TSP payment rates with NRCS. • Provide mini-grants to North Central states for EQIP 595 enhancement. • Serve as a liaison between NRCS, IPM specialists and growers to support projects to increase state-wide adoption of IPM.


  8. Presentation Objectives • Give a Working Definition of IPM • Outline a few key pumpkin pests and related IPM control strategies • Translate IPM Practices into NRCS EQIP for Specialty Crop Guidelines • Conclusions

  9. What is IPM? • The comprehensive and coordinated use of cultural, biological, and chemical tactics to reduce a pest population below an acceptable threshold • Cultural – non-chemical tactics, host plant resistance, planting date, cover crops, traps, scouting, crop rotation, sanitation, etc. • Biological – natural enemy conservation & enhancement • Chemical – pesticide selection and spray timing

  10. Multiple Approaches to IPM • PAMS • Prevention, Avoidance, Monitoring, Suppression VS. • Seasonal • Pre plant, At plant, In season, Harvest, Post harvest VS. • Discipline • Weeds, Insects, Disease, Culture, etc. • Can couch IPM in various combinations or formats

  11. Pre plant, At plant, In season IPMInsect & Disease Management • Key Pest(s): Striped cucumber beetle, may vector Bacterial wilt • (PP) Delay direct seeding until after 1st generation of beetles decline • (PP) Use transplants • (AP) Use systemic insecticides in-furrow or seed treatments • (IS) Scout emerged seedlings, treat if cuke beetle threshold is exceeded

  12. Bacterial wilt symptoms on pumpkin Striped cucumber beetles

  13. Pre plant and In season IPMInsect & Disease Management • Key Pest(s): Aphids can vector viruses ZYMV, CMV, SqMV (WMV predominantly in OH) • Host plant resistance not commercially available • (PP) Plant early to avoid July / August aphid flights • (AP) Reflective mulch (not very effective) • (IS) Systemic or Contact insecticides will not control vector soon enough to prevent transmission

  14. Aphid; Virus Fruit and Leaf Symptoms

  15. In season and Post harvest IPMInsect Management • Key Pest: Squash vine borer • (IS) Use pheromone trap to detect adults end of June to mid July • (IS) Based on flight activity treat plant crown w/ insecticide • (PH) Destroy vines after harvest, kill SVB larvae & pupae

  16. Squash Vine Borer Adult, Larva, & Trap

  17. Pre plant and In season IPMDisease Management • Key Disease: Powdery mildew • (PP) Select PM tolerant hybrids when possible • (IS) Scout beginning mid July, treat as soon as PM colonies found • (IS) Rotate fungicide FRAC #’s to delay PM resistance • (PP thru IS) Keep updated on most effective fungicides, they do change over time

  18. Powdery Mildew on leaf Powdery Mildew on handle

  19. Pre plant - Post harvest IPMWeed Management • Key weeds: Pigweed, Marestail, Cocklebur Lambsquarters, Black nightshade, G. Ragweed, Velvetleaf, Grasses, others • (PP) Site selection and crop rotation, clean fields only • (PP) Stale seedbed • (AP) Use of Pre-emerge herbicides • (IS) Cultivate conventional fields until vines run • (IS) Post (spot spray) programs, hoe, hand pull • (PH) Reduced tillage combined w/ cover crops

  20. Winter Rye Grass Cover, No-till

  21. Current Sources of IPM Information • VegNet Newsletter • Updated weekly • VegNet.OSU.EDU • Updated weekly or biweekly • OH Vegetable Production Guide • updated annually • Annual Pumpkin Field Days/Workshops • Current Publications

  22. Excerpts from IPM/EQIP Guidelines

  23. Excerpts from IPM/EQIP Guidelines

  24. Excerpts from IPM/EQIP Guidelines

  25. Excerpts from IPM/EQIP Guidelines

  26. Excerpts from IPM/EQIP Guidelines

  27. Excerpts from IPM/EQIP Guidelines

  28. Excerpts from IPM/EQIP Guidelines

  29. Excerpts from IPM/EQIP Guidelines

  30. Conclusions • Many approaches and tactics for Pest Management in pumpkin • Span from Pre plant to Post harvest (early to late season) • Insects dominate early, Diseases dominate late, Weeds are problematic throughout the season • Many opportunities for growers to use IPM AND protect SWAPA, & thereby qualify for conservation programs


  32. NRCS/EQIP Program • NRCS will pay growers for up to 3 years to adopt practices that they think will improve conservation • Pest management is one of the practices they encourage • Recently, more interest in funding IPM for fruit and vegetable growers

  33. EQIP for Fruit and Vegetables • Orchards • $90/acre • Up to $4500 per year • Vegetables • $45/acre • Up to $2250 per year

  34. IPM in Apples • Must follow the IPM Elements developed by Ohio State • Points given for each practice • Total of 640 points possible • First do a baseline assessment of what you are already doing • Year 1: must have a score at least 10% higher than your baseline • Year 2: must have a score at least 10% higher than Year 1 • Year 3: must have a score at 10 higher than Year 2 and be at least 60% of the total possible score (384 points)

  35. How Do You Get Points? • Some points available for educational activities – Up to 45 points • Join grower organizations • Come to Extension meetings • Look at Extension websites • Buy Extension publications

  36. Pesticide and Record Keeping • 85 points available • Calibrate sprayers annually • Accurate and organized records • Drift control nozzles • Environmental Impact Quotient

  37. Soil and Nutrient Management and Cultural Practices • 90 points available • Soil test • Adjust pH • Site selection • Nitrogen management • Pruning and thinning

  38. Weed Management • 85 points available • Eradicate perennial weeds • Plant grass between rows • Rotate herbicides • Tailor herbicide choices for weeds present

  39. Disease Management • 125 points available • Use extended spray intervals • Alternate fungicides • Use weather forecasting • Consider disease resistant varieties • Consider disease resistant rootstocks • Remove brush piles • Remove dead leaves (urea and/or mowing)

  40. Arthropod Management • 220 points available

  41. Arthropod Management • Use pheromone traps in all blocks to monitor adult populations of codling moth. Base spray application on thresholds and/or degree day accumulations after a trap-based biofix date. (15 points)

  42. Arthropod Management • If Oriental fruit moth is also present, use pheromone traps to monitor its activity, and adjust spray program as need to allow control of multiple generations. (15 points) Oriental Fruit Moth Codling Moth

  43. Arthropod Management • Use red ball traps to monitor for apple maggot flies, and use an insecticide to target maggot if thresholds exceeded. (5 points) • Monitor apple maggot fly with red-sphere attractants, and base control sprays on the threshold established for Ohio. (10 points)

  44. Arthropod Management • Use pheromone traps to monitor adult populations of San Jose scale in blocks known for previous SJS damage. Base spray application timing for crawlers on detection with black sticky tape and/or on thresholds and/or degree day accumulations after catch of adults in traps. (5 points)

  45. Arthropod Management • Survey European red mite populations on a weekly basis from petal fall until mid August using the Cornell mite sampling method and form. Apply miticide only if threshold exceeded. (10 points)

  46. Arthropod Management • Scout for rosy apple aphid at the early pink bud stage. Apply insecticide only if threshold exceeded. (10 points)

  47. Arthropod Management • Scout for spotted tentiform leafminer at the early petal-fall stage. (15 points)

  48. Arthropod Management • Scout for white apple leafhopper at the early petal-fall stage and weekly until late June. Apply insecticides only if threshold exceeded. (10 points)

  49. Arthropod Management • Scout for woolly apple aphid weekly all summer; good control by insecticide is most likely if detected when infestation just beginning. (10 points)

  50. Arthropod Management • Begin plum curculio sprays at petal fall and 14 days later in blocks where plum curculio has been a problem. (10 points)