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Optimality Theory. Abdullah Khalid Bosaad 刘 畅 Liú Chàng. Optimality Theory. OT in real life; OT in Yawelmani ; The strength of OT. Optimality Theory in real life. How do I group these people ?. Optimality Theory in real life?. What is OT ?.

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Optimality Theory


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    1. Optimality Theory Abdullah Khalid Bosaad 刘畅 LiúChàng

    2. Optimality Theory • OT in real life; • OT in Yawelmani; • The strength of OT.

    3. Optimality Theory in real life • How do I group these people?

    4. Optimality Theory in real life?

    5. What is OT ? • an approach in phonological description pioneered by Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky (1993).

    6. The Fundamentals of OT The structure: • CON (Constraint component) • GEN (Generator component) • EVAL(Evaluator component) • CON : a universal set of constraints. • Faithfulness constraints—prohibits difference between input and output. • Dep constraint: output depends on input • /input/ …{cand1, cand2,…}/buk-z/ {[buks, bugz, bukz… ]}

    7. The Fundamentals of OT • GEN : a mapping of inputs to every possible output, producing candidates • /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…}/buk-z/ {[buks, bugz, bukz… ]} • EVAL: a method for choosing the best candidate. • /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…} Eval[output]

    8. OT in Yawelmani: • Spoken in California • Syllables cannot be bigger than CVC pattern. EX: Input /ʔilk-hin/  output=[ ? ] • 1. ʔil.k.hin • 2. ʔi.lik.hin • 3. ʔi.li.ki.hin • 4. ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni

    9. OT in Yawelmani: • Input /ʔilk-hin/GEN{[ cand1,… cand4,… ]}EVALoutput=[ ] Candidate set: • Can1= ʔil.k.hin • Can2= ʔi.lik.hin • Can3= ʔi.li.ki.hin • Can4= ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni

    10. Apply * C unsyll (unsyllabified consonant is ungrammatical) Apply Dep Input /ʔilk-hin/ • Can1= ʔil.k.hin • Can2= ʔi.lik.hin • Can3= ʔi.li.ki.hin • Can4= ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni • Favors 2,3,4 over 1 (because [k] is unsyllabified) • Favors 1, over 2 over 3 over 4 OT in Yawelmani:

    11. OT in Yawelmani: • Constraint Hierarchy: C unsyll>>Dep • Output= Cand2 [ʔi.lik.hin]

    12. The strength of OT Yawelmani: • Delete a vowel at the end of a word. • /taxa-ka/  /ta.xak/, /taxa-mi//ta.xam/ • V deletion: Vø / VC____#

    13. The strength of OT • / xat.ka/  ? • /xat.ka/? VS /xat.k/? • / xat.ka / exists. • *C unsyll—prohibits unsyllabified consonants. /xat.k/ is ungrammatical. • *V#--end vowel deletion.

    14. The strength of OT • C unsyll >> V# :C unsyll has a higher priority than V# (C unsyll dominates V#), so / xat.ka/ exist and */ xat.k/ does not.

    15. The strength of OT • models grammars as systems that provide mappings from inputs to outputs; typically, the inputs are conceived of as underlying representations, and the outputs as their surface realizations. • proposes that the observed forms of language arise from the interaction between conflicting constraints. • Constraint prioritization ranking is fundamental to OT