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Liquids and Solids. Changes of State. Objectives. Explain the relationship between equilibrium and changes of state Define Le Chatelier’s Principle. Predict changes in equilibrium using Le Chatelier’s Principle. Dry Ice Balloon Explosion (Very Loud Bang) - YouTube. Equilibrium.

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liquids and solids

Liquids and Solids

Changes of State

objectives
Objectives
  • Explain the relationship between equilibrium and changes of state
  • Define Le Chatelier’s Principle.
  • Predict changes in equilibrium using Le Chatelier’s Principle.

Dry Ice Balloon Explosion (Very Loud Bang) - YouTube

equilibrium
Equilibrium

Equilibrium – a dynamic state in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system.

Changes of State

solid  liquid melting

solid  gas sublimation

liquid  solid freezing

liquid  gas vaporization

gas  liquid condensation

gas  solid deposition

an equilibrium equation
An Equilibrium Equation
  • Evaporation of a liquid

Liquid + energy  vapor

  • Condensation of a liquid

Vapor  liquid + energy

  • Liquid-vapor equilibrium

liquid + energy vapor

le chatelier s principle
Le Chatelier’s Principle

A system at equilibrium will shift to offset a stress or change in conditions imposed on the system.

equilibrium and temperature
Equilibrium and Temperature

liquid + energy vapor

equilibrium and concentration
Equilibrium and Concentration

liquid + energy vapor

equilibrium vapor pressure
Equilibrium Vapor Pressure
  • Pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature

-an increase in temperature causes an increase in equilibrium vapor pressure; result of increased K.E. of the liquid particles.

boiling
Boiling

Boiling…

…occurs when the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure

…conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as at the surface.

Normal Boiling Point: boiling point at standard atmospheric pressure (100oC for water)

molar heat of vaporization
Molar Heat of Vaporization
  • The amount of energy needed to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid at its boiling point
freezing and melting
Freezing and Melting

Freezing:

Liquid  solid + heat energy

Melting:

Solid + heat energy  liquid

Normal freezing point: temperature at which a solid and liquid are at equilbrium at standard pressure (0oC for water

Molar Heat of Fusion – energy required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point.

phase diagram
Phase Diagram

Triple Point – temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gas phases of a substance can coexist at equilibrium

Critical temperature - temperature above which a substance cannot exist in the liquid phase.

Critical pressure – the lowest pressure at which a substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature.