liquids and solids n.
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Liquids and Solids. Liquids. Definite volume Fluidity – able to flow Relative high density Relative incompressibility Dissolving ability Ability to diffuse Tendency to evaporate and boil Tendency to solidify. Solids. 2 types of solids Crystalline solid (crystal)

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liquids
Liquids
  • Definite volume
  • Fluidity – able to flow
  • Relative high density
  • Relative incompressibility
  • Dissolving ability
  • Ability to diffuse
  • Tendency to evaporate and boil
  • Tendency to solidify
solids
Solids
  • 2 types of solids
    • Crystalline solid (crystal)
      • Arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern
    • Amorphous solid (without form)
      • Arranged randomly – no pattern
properties of solids
Properties of solids
  • Definite shape
  • Definite volume
  • Nonfluidity
  • Definite melting point
  • High density
  • Incompressibility
crystalline solids
Crystalline solids
  • The total 3-dimensional array of points that describe the arrangement of particles in a crystal is called a crystal lattice.

1 repeating piece is a unit cell

phase diagram
Phase Diagram

(Freezing

Points)

Liquid

1

Pressure (atm)

(Boiling Points)

Solid

.

Gas

(Triple Point)

0

100

Temperature (oC)

mixtures
Mixtures
  • 3 Types of mixtures
  • 1. Solution
    • Soluble – will dissolve
    • Forms a homogeneous mixture
      • Very small particles
    • 2 Parts of a solution
      • Solute – stuff that dissolves
      • Solvent – stuff that the solute dissolves in
slide9

2. Suspensions

    • Heterogeneous mixture that settles
    • Large particles
    • Muddy water, italian salad dressing
      • (anything that must be shaken)
slide10

3. Colloids

    • Intermediate sized particles
    • Particles disperse
      • 2 parts of a colloid
    • Tyndall Effect
      • Seeing a beam of light
        • (separates colloid from solution)
examples of colloids
Examples of Colloids
  • ColloidPhase
  • Gel solid dispersed in liquid
  • Liquid emulsion liquid dispersed in liquid
  • Foam gas dispersed in liquid
  • Smoke solid dispersed in gas
  • Fog liquid dispersed in gas
  • Smog solid & liquid dispersed in gas
3 types of mixtures
3 types of mixtures
  • Solutions
  • Homogeneous
  • Very small particles
  • Does not separate
  • No light scattering
  • Colloids
  • Homogeneous
  • Intermediate sized
  • Does not separate
  • Tyndall effect
  • Suspensions
  • Heterogeneous
  • Large particles
  • Separates
  • No Tyndall effect
the solution process
The solution process
  • Increasing the Rate of dissolving
    • 1. Increase the surface area of solute
    • 2. Agitating the solution
    • 3. Heating the solvent
types of solutions1
Types of solutions
  • Electrolyte
    • A solution that has ions in it and can conduct electricity
  • Saturated solution
    • Contains the maximum amount of solute
  • Unsaturated solution
    • Contains less than the maximum amount of solute
  • Supersaturated solution
    • Contains more than the maximum amount of solute
      • (Rock candy, crystals)
factors affecting solubility
Factors affecting solubility
  • 1.Types of solvents and solutes
    • Like dissolves like
      • Refers to polarity
        • Water is a polar molecule
        • Oil is a nonpolar molecule
      • If they are the same polarity, the compounds are miscible (mixable) - salt in water, vinegar in water
      • If they are not soluble, they are immiscible (not mixable) - oil in water, salt in oil
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2.Pressure

    • Under pressure a gas will enter and dissolve in a liquid
      • fizz in a bottle of pop
    • If pressure is released, the liquid can’t hold as much gas
      • Effervescence
  • 3. Temperature
    • Warmer liquids hold less gas
      • Burp more from warm pop