Liquids and Solids. Properties of Liquids and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory. Liquid- is a form of matter that has a definite volume and takes the shape of its container. The particles are in constant motion.
(Showing meting of ice and changes in molecular structure)
(magnification at molecular level from ice to water)
(ion-ion, ion- dipole, dipole-dipole tutorial)
LDFs-temporary dipole interactions and are the weakest intermolecular bonds-present between all molecules and non bonded atoms, and are significant in noble gas atoms and non polar compounds.-The strength of LDFs depends upon two things:1. # of e in atoms that make up the molecule2. The ease with which e are dispersed to form temporary dipoles.
Dipole-Dipole, LDFs animation
Strongest of the weak interactions (strongest intermolecular forces)H Bonds
Surface Tension and Capillary Actionhttp://www.wwnorton.com/COLLEGE/chemistry/gilbert/tutorials/interface.asp?chapter=chapter_09&folder=capillary_action(Capillary, Surface tension Tutorial)
Surface Tension-a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid’s surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size.
~The higher the attraction forces (intermolecular forces), the higher the surface tension. Surface tension causes liquid droplets to take a spherical shape.
Capillary action- the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid.
~Capillary action is the reason water from the roots of a tree goes to the leaves. It is also responsible for the liquid surface called the meniscus.
http://plc.cwru.edu/tutorial/enhanced/lab/visco/intro/intro.htm (Viscosity and molecular size interactive simulation)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Ft9VDDPWb4&feature=related (video on different density liquids)
(Water and Ice at molecular level)
(vapor pressure equilibrium on manometer)
Vapor Pressure Vs. TemperatureVapor pressure increases with the increase in temperature.http://hogan.chem.lsu.edu/matter/chap26/animate3/an26_034.mov(VP vs Temp)
Vaporization-the process by which a liquid or solid changes to gas.
Evaporation- is the process where particles escape from the surface of a non boiling liquid and enters the gas state.
~Evaporation takes place because the particles of liquids have different kinetic energies, therefore some of the particles with higher kinetic energy overcome the intermolecular forces and evaporate to go in the gas phase.
Boiling- is the change of a liquid to bubbles or vapor. Boiling occurs when the vapor pressure becomes equals atmospheric pressure.
(s-l-g with molecular motion at phase change)
1 & 3 H = m * DT * Cp
2 & 4 H = m * DHvap
1 2 3 4
Time ( heat energy added )
Exist either as single crystals or group of crystals fused together.The total three dimensional arrangement of particles is called as crystal structure.
Crystalline solids can be of four types:
Ionic, Covalent Network, Metallic and Covalent Crystals
Unlike crystalline solids, amorphous solids do not have a regular shape. Amorphous solids are formed when liquids are cooled gradually, so particles are not arranged in any particular order.
Ex: Plastic, GlassesDifferences between Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
Pictures of Solids: http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/genobc/Chapter_06/
http://www.wwnorton.com/COLLEGE/chemistry/gilbert/tutorials/interface.asp?chapter=chapter_09&folder=phase_diagramsTutorial on phase diagram with phase changes
O T, in C 100