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Development of ICTs or ICTs for Development? Can Local Sightedness Solve this Dilemma? Using E-Governance as a Case-S PowerPoint Presentation
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Vikas Nath Founder, Digital Governance Initiative www.DigitalGovernance.org Special Advisor to the Executive Director, South Centre, Geneva. Development of ICTs or ICTs for Development? Can Local Sightedness Solve this Dilemma? Using E-Governance as a Case-Study.

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slide1

Vikas Nath

Founder, Digital Governance Initiative

www.DigitalGovernance.org

Special Advisor to the Executive Director,

South Centre, Geneva

Development of ICTs

or

ICTs for Development?

Can Local Sightedness Solve this Dilemma?

Using E-Governance as a Case-Study

EPFL Executive Master in e-Governance

Lausanne, Switzerland

13 October 2006

slide2
To understand this session better let us get out of this classroom and transport ourselves back into our countries…
slide3

Development of ICTs: What do we mean?

ICTs can be visualized as:

Infrastructure: Roads, Electricity Grid, Railway Lines …

Communication Tool: Post, Newspapers …

Capital: Finance, Ideas, Human Resources …

As in the case of Infrastructure, Communication Tools and Capital, development of ICTs leads to economic growth, greater opportunities and human development.

And yet, similar to Infrastructure, Communication Tools and Capital developing ICTs itself cannot ensure that lives of all people, including those belonging to the marginalized sections, will improve automatically.

Millions of people still lie in poverty next to roads and highways!

slide4

ICTs for Development: What do we mean?

ICTs can be visualized as:

Access to Education :online classes, libraries, course material

Access to Employment : job notices, outsourced jobs

Access to Information: market price, weather and floods information, government schemes

Access to Advice: agricultural, business, health advice

Access to Services: shopping, banking, government services

High access-cost & equipment fees, limited bandwidth, expensive ICT solutions, software & business models, lack of technical know-how means many developing countries are unable to deliver benefits of ICTs to their population (inspite of good intentions).

the way forward is
The Way Forward is:
  • Prioritization of Development Benefits
  • Localization: Targeting of Desired Constituencies
  • Being Indigenous in “Development of ICTs”
  • Being Innovative in setting up « ICT for Development models »

LET US TAKE THE EXAMPLE OF

E-GOVERNANCE ….

slide7

E-Government at a Glance

Source: UNPAN http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan006268.pdf

e gov readiness index top 10 capacity of public sector to use ict

E-Participation Index (top 10)willingness to provide information and communication tools (6 Areas: Health, Educ, Finance, Employment, Social welfare & General

E-Gov Readiness Index (top 10)capacity of public sector to use ICT

Source: UNPAN E-Gov Global Survey 2005 http://www.unpan.org/egovernment5.asp

ranking of municipalities online 84 cities
Ranking of Municipalities Online(84 Cities)

1 Seoul

2 Hong Kong

3 Singapore

4 Rome

5 Shanghai

6 New York

7 Auckland

8 Stockholm

9 Sao Paulo

10 Sofia

CRITERIA: Citizen Service Delivery

Among the top 25 cities:

8 cities are from developing or transition countries: Shanghai Dubai, Macao, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Kyiv, Sofia, Bucharest.

Source: Survey done by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey- Newark, USA http://newark.rutgers.edu/~egovinst/Website/summary.htm

who is the government for citizens who are the citizens for government
Who is theGovernment for Citizens ?Who are theCitizens for Government ?

CITIZENS

GOVERNMENT

Women

Central

Government

Home

Ministry

Farmers

Taxpayer

Courts

Agriculture

Department

Rural

Population

National

Banks

Senior

Citizens

Municipality

Un-

Employed

State

Government

Customs

Entrepreneur

Media

Excise

Department

Police

slide11
Localization and Prioritization of Development Benefits (Who are the users and what services do they need?)
targeting e governance is match making between citizens and service providers
TARGETING: E-Governance is Match- Making between Citizens and Service Providers

E- GOVERNANCE

SERVICE PROVIDERS

USER GROUPS

Un-

Employed

Transport

Ministry

Farmers

Department of

Youth Employment

NGO

Workers

CITIZENS

Home

Ministry

Women

Senior

Citizens

Local

Municipalities

Children

Local

Media

Health

Department

Local

Businesses

Agriculture

Department

slide13

5 Innovative E-Governance Models being used in Several Developing Countries

  • Wider Dissemination Model
  • Critical Flow Model
  • Comparative Analysis Model
  • E-advocacy/ Pressure group model
  • Selective-Service Model
slide14

Wider Disseminating Model

Information:

Public Domain Wider Public Domain

CITIZENS

  • Govt. Laws, Legislations, Notices
  • Local Govt. Offices and Officials Information
  • Government Budget, Plans and Expenditures
  • Key Judicial Decisions: state vs. citizen decisions
  • Government Tenders, Procurement Notice
  • Government Employment

Wider Public Domain

CITIZENS

Public

Domain

Information

CITIZENS

slide15

Examples

Mongolia: Open Government

http://open-government.mn

Malaysia: E-Flood Information

http://jps.selangor.gov.my

Philippines: Government Online (but not yet!)

http://www.gov.ph/directory

Uzbekistan: Portal of the State of Authority

http://www.gov.uz

slide17

MALAYSIA:E-Flood Information DID (JPS) Selangor State

http://jps.selangor.gov.my

  • The system integrates all hydrology data from District DID (JPS) to the Shah Alam Hydrology Unit automatically and in real time.
  • It then provides real-time river monitoring to safequard life and property, and offers flood warnings through SMS.
  • The project simplifies government agency flood rescue operations.
slide19

Critical Flow Model

Critical Information:

Private Domain Wider Public Domain

  • Corruption Information
  • Enquiry reports, scientific research, impact studies commissioned
  • Company’s Green Ratings
  • Human Rights Violations Records
  • Whistle Blowing

Wider Domain

Private Domain

Information

slide20

Examples

Bangladesh: Human Rights Portal www.banglarights.net

independent web portal which exposes and challenges discriminations and violations of human rights.

India: Central Vigilance Committee www.cvc.nic.in

Online filing of complaints against public officials and online exposing of names of Corrupted Government Officials.

Mexico: Declarenet www.declaranet.gob.mx

Declaranet" allows for on-line filing of income for federal employees.

Bloggers

slide23

Comparative Analysis Model

Information in:

Private / Public Domain + Public / Private Domain Wider Public Domain

Public/Private

Domain

Wider Domain

Public Domain

Information

Public/Private

Domain

comparative analysis model
Comparative Analysis Model
  • Based on comparison
  • over Time
  • Based on comparison between 2 Services at a given time
  • Court Rulings / Historical Archive
  • Tracking Performance Records / Background of Electoral Candidates
  • Bringing out Best / Worst Practices
  • Cases of Corruption, Budget Irregularities
slide25

Examples

India: National Courts

http://indiancourts.nic.in

Sri Lanka: Comparison of Education Indicators (Kothmale Project)

Philippines: Comparison of Electoral Candidates

India: Green Ratings of Chief Ministers/ Comparing Environmental Records of Industries

http://www.cseindia.org

slide28

Mobilisation and Lobbying Model

Building Allies / Networking Networks for

Concerted Action

Real Community

Virtual Community

Communities

Common

Goal

Individuals

Strategic flow of Information to build strong issue-based Allies to complement action in Real World.

Networks

Interest

Groups

slide29

Examples

  • SMS and Mobile Political Campaigns- Philippines, Belarus (ice-cream flash mobs) and Ukraine
  • SMS Protests: Lebanan (organise massive anti-Syrian protests after the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri)
  • Anti-Corruption Signature Campaigns: India (Petition OnlineCorruption)
  • Email Groups for Lobbying: Zimbabwe Kubatana.net
slide30

Service Delivery Model

USER SERVICE PROVIDER

E-Procurement

E- Shopping

E-ballots

E-taxes, parking tickets, licenses

E-Government

slide31

Examples

Philippines: Online Marriage, Birth Certificates (City of Manila)

http://www.cityofmanila.com.ph/service.htm

China: Shanghai Investment Promotion Agency

http://www.investment.gov.cn/english/index.html

Indonesia: LIVE E-Commerce

India: Delhi Government Online Complaint Form complaints.mcdonline.gov.in

slide34

Price Terms:

Company Name:

ADDRESS: 6th Floor, Suite 18, IOI Business Park, Bandar Puchong Jaya, Puchong, Malaysia, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia, Malaysia

PHONE: 60 3 80762836

Medanova Commodities Sdn Bhd

 FOB

Contact Person:

Mr Rajalingam Theva Raj

Indonesia: Want to buy a LIVE SHEEP?

Leave me a message

Specifications:For sale jamnapari goats ex Indonesia. Quality breeders between 6 and 9 months old. Able to supply up to 450 goats per month.

Berat LahirBerat Dewasa

Jantan 3 - 4 kg  

Jantan 68 - 91 kg

Betina 3-4 kg  

Betina 36-63 skg

coming back the way forward is
COMING BACKThe Way Forward is:
  • Prioritization of Development Benefits
  • Localization: Targeting of Desired Constituencies
  • Being Indigenous in “Development of ICTs”
  • Being Innovative in setting up « ICT for Development models »

THUS THE GUIDING PRINCIPLE

BEHIND ICT PROJECTS SHOULD BE ……

slide36

THE GUIDING PRINCIPLE

Increasing the« Public Value of Services »being offered by Information Technology to local community?

What do you mean by PUBLIC VALUE of Services?

Okay, let me explain what that means?

O O

i

case a pre ict situation
Case A: pre-ICT Situation

V= Value of Service being derived by the User: U

V1B

A

B

V1A

U1

V2C

C

U2

U4

V4D

U3

V3D

D

V5D

U5

SERVICES (A, B, C, D)

USERS (5)

Total Public Value of Services derived = U1V1 + U2V2 + U3V3 + U4V4 + U5V5

3 ways to increase public value of services
3 WAYS to increase PUBLIC VALUE OF SERVICES:
  • Bring NEW USERS under the reach of the Information Technology
  • Provide NEW SERVICES to Existing Users
  • Enhance the QUALITY OF EXISTING SERVICES being offered so that users derive greater Value from the same service.

THE SITUATION WILL THEN CHANGE…..

case b desired post ict situation
Case B: Desired post- ICT situation

G

U6

U8

A

B

U1

U7

C

E

U2

U4

U3

F

D

U5

USERS (8)

SERVICES (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H)

New Public Value = U1V1 + U2V2 + U3V3 + U4V4 + U5V5 +….. + UiVj

ict projects guideline
ICT Projects Guideline
  • Who are the Target groups that we want to reach out to, through Internet?
  • What are the local information needs of the disadvantaged community?
  • What are the existing channels by which information reaches to the disadvantaged community?
  • What is the weakest link in the chain of information flows: from source to the disadvantaged communities?
questions
QUESTIONS?

Vikas Nath

Inlaks Scholar, London School of Economics, UK

Founder, Digital Governance Initiative

Founder, DevNetJobs.org Initiative

Special Advisor, South Centre

Vikas.Nath@gmail.com

http://www.VikasNath.org