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Sustainable Development Practice in China. From Eco-City to Eco-Civilization. Content:. Introduction and ecocity concept China: from eco-city to eco-civilization Overview Eco-demonstration under MoEP Ecocity building by local governments Shanghai case: Chongming Eco-Island development

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Sustainable Development Practice in China

From Eco-City to Eco-Civilization



  • Introduction and ecocity concept
  • China: from eco-city to eco-civilization
    • Overview
    • Eco-demonstration under MoEP
    • Ecocity building by local governments
      • Shanghai case: Chongming Eco-Island development
    • Calling for eco-civilization
introduction and ecocity concept
Introduction and ecocity concept

Ecocity, Ecological City or Ecopolis.

Originated from the Man and Biosphere program (MAB) by UNESCO in 1970s.

Richard Register: “An Ecocity is a human settlement that enables its residents to live a good quality of life while using minimal natural resources. ”

Urbanization: urban sickness …

social/environ. ..


New Orleans

San Francisco

What is an ecocity?

  • Commercial and living;
  • Stereo greening;
  • Trams, rarely cars;
  • Renewable energy (solar/wind);
  • Biodiversity;
  • Environment & 3Rs …
  • Concentrated, not sprawling. …

Cited from Richard Register

ecocity world summits 1990 2009
Ecocity World Summits 1990-2009
  • Berkeley, California 1990, … basic ideas of ecocity design/planning
  • Adelaide, Australia,1992, … for cities for people instead of cars …
  • Yoff, Senegal, 1996, … for underdeveloped countries
  • Curitiba, Brazil, 2000, … discussion on Curitiba itself …
  • Shenzhen, China, 2002, … for fast developing countries, declaration
  • Bangalore, India, 2006. a window on the world like a magnifying glass …
  • San Francisco, USA, 2008. … a declaration that laid out five requirements and ten actions for Ecocity development
  • Istanbul, Turkey, 2009. … Tianjin eco-city reported their progress but was criticized about not enough ambitious on renewable energy portion (20%). Istanbul argued about population growth…

Montreal, Canada, 2011, for the first time, it included a section on ecocity economics. However, the discussion was not deep enough, e.g., more input from revenue was suggested but no discussion on how to collect revenue…

the san francisco ecocity declaration
The San Francisco Ecocity Declaration

The 7th International Ecocity Conference

April 22-26, 2008

  • An ecocity is an ecologically healthy city. Into the deep future, the cities in which we live must enable people to thrive in harmony with nature and achieve sustainable development. People oriented, ecocity development requires the comprehensive understanding of complex interactions betweenenvironmental, economic, political and socio-cultural factors based on ecological principles. Cities, towns and villages should be designed to enhance the health and quality of life of their inhabitants and maintain the ecosystems on which they depend.
  • Five requirements:
    • Ecological security - clean air, and safe, reliable water supplies, food, healthy housing and workplaces, municipal services and protection against disasters for all people.
    • Ecological sanitation - efficient, cost-effective eco-engineering for treating and recycling human excreta, gray water, and all wastes.
    • Ecological industrial metabolism - resource conservation and environmental protection through industrial transition, emphasizing materials re-use, life-cycle production, renewable energy, efficient transportation, and meeting human needs.
    • Ecoscape (ecological-landscape) integrity - arrange built structures, open spaces such as parks and plazas, connectors such as streets and bridges, and natural features such as waterways and ridgelines, to maximize biodiversity and maximize accessibility of the city for all citizens while conserving energy and resources and alleviating such problems as automobile accidents, air pollution, hydrological deterioration, heat island effects and global warming.
    • Ecological awareness - help people understand their place in nature, cultural identity, responsibility for the environment, and help them change their consumption behavior and enhance their ability to contribute to maintaining high quality urban ecosystems.
ten key actions needed
Ten key actions needed:
  • Provide safe shelter, water, sanitation, security of tenure and food security for all citizens … priority to the poor …
  • Build cities for people, not cars. …
  • Identify ecologically sensitive areas, define the carrying capacity …
  • Design cities for energy conservation, renewable energy uses and the reduction, re-use and recycling of materials
  • Build cities for safe pedestrian and non-motorized transport use with efficient, convenient and low-cost public transportation. …
  • Provide strong economic incentives to businesses for ecocity building and rebuilding …
  • Provide … education and training programs, capacity building and local skills …
  • Create a government agency at each level …
  • .. to addressglobal heating, the coming end of fossil fuels and global crisis of species extinctions.
  • … international, inter-city and community-to-community cooperation to share experiences, lessons and resources ….
ecocity 9 montreal canada aug 22 26 2011
Ecocity 9, Montreal Canada, Aug 22-26, 2011

Interconnecting Themes

  • Climate Change and Urban Planning
  • Ecomobility, Urban Planning, Public Space
  • Governance and Democracy in the Ecocity
  • Economics of the Ecocity
  • Health and the Built Environment
  • Biodiversity and Urban Agriculture
  • Youth Leadership and Engagement in the Arts, Culture and Environment
  • An Ecocity Project… on the Ground!
ecological economy
Ecological economy
  • What is the purpose of the economy in an ecocity, and how do we define terms like “sustainable development,” “prosperity,” “well-being,” and “quality of life” in line with that purpose? Three key sub-themes build on this foundational question. First, how can we favour local economies?(怎样可以对当地经济发展有利?) Here, we will examine ways to keep wealth and prosperity within an ecocity as we consider how its inhabitants feed and entertain themselves. Important challenges must be addressed in regard to financing the economy, confronting the trend toward globalization, balancing public and private sector engagement and managing relations between the ecocity and its surrounding regions. The Transition Town and post-carbon city social movements may produce instructive new approaches. Second, how can we encourage decent work in an ecocity?(怎样增加就业机会?) Here, we will consider green jobs and possible new modes of work, such as work sharing and shorter work weeks, as well as sectors that are best suited to an ecocity. Third, how should we manage energy and materials needs of an ecocity? (怎样管理所需的能源和物料?)…How are economic and environmental prosperity maintained in an ecocity? (怎样维护经济和环境财产?)
insights from the history of the international ecocity conferences r register
Insights from the History of the International Ecocity Conferences (R. Register)
  • When I convened the organizing of the First International Ecocity Conference my notion was to try to accelerate the efforts and successes of the previous 30 years of work on the idea of the ecologically healthy city. That means today some of us have been working “in the field” for more than 50 years.
  • Here at this conference you've seen some partial glimpses of what it can be, but we will have to go much, much farther down the road toward the ecocity if we are to rescue our descendants and most of the still remaining other species from our past mistakes. We certainly have all the tools and insights available to do it but we need to recognize that most people don't even want to cast their eyes in that direction, rightly suspecting that the obligation to do something difficult and different - the specter of fundamental change and all the hard, eventually glorious work it entails - lies down that road.
  • Requirements
    • Safe shelter, water, food, wealth …
    • Green, environment & diversity …
    • No cars; public transportation …
    • Renewable energy and 3Rs, low carbon ...
    • Governance …Education and training …
  • Issues not resolved:
    • How to achieve these requirements;
    • Technical feasibility;
    • Economic feasibility (input/output analysis)
    • Local conditions: population & growth rate, built environment…

China is making a miracle, however along with rapid economic development and urbanization:

  • Environmental pollution
  • Resource restriction
  • Social problems in urban areas
  • Biodiversity in urban areas
  • Climate change impacts
  • ……
eco development programs in china
Eco-development programs in China

Related programs

Scenery city 山水城市

Green city 绿色城市

Garden city 花园城市

Eco – garden city 生态园林城市

Environmental model city 环境模范城市

Environmentally friendly city 环境友好城市

Eco – City 生态示范城市

Eco – civilization city 生态文明城市

the major programs
Eco-Garden city program by MHURD

From 1992, evaluation in every 2 years. Up to 2008, there were 10 batches of 125 cities officially nominated with state-level “Eco-Garden Cities”

In 2004, “resource saving” principle was included in this program. In 2006, it was further emphasized for “Three-Savings: land, water, and funding”; Four-Reductions: urban heat island, air and water pollutions, energy consumption of buildings and infrastructure, and energy consumption in urban transportation.

The objective is to develop green andeconomic societies

Eco – demonstration program under MoEP


1996~2004, SEPA approved 9 batches of cities as “Ecological Development Demonstration pilot areas”

Indicator system – version 1, 2003

Indicator system – version 2, 2008

To 2008, 6 cities, 3 counties, and 2 districts were officially nominated as “eco-” areas

2010-2011 28 more “Ecological Development Demonstration pilot areas”

Eco – district building by local governments

Beijing (Mengtougou), Tianjin(Binghaixinqu), Tangshan(Nanhu), …Shanghai(Chongming Island) …

Eco-Civilization was called for by the 17th National Congress of CC Party (2007, 2008-)

The major programs
eco demonstration program under moep
Eco - demonstration program under MoEP


Based on the principles of sustainable development and ecological economy, to promoteregional harmonic development of economy and society with environmental protection, to establish appropriate cyclic system for the development of economy, society and integrated natural system, to ensure adequate utilization of natural resource and improvement of ecological environment, while economic and social development meet the demand by the people.






Top down promotion /

Regional development / Bottom Up approach

Sustainable development is emphasized

nomination procedure for eco city county district
Nomination procedure for eco-city/county/district

Step1: Apply to MoEP for an eco - demonstration unit

To 2008, after the first screening, 389 out of 528 cities/counties/districts were accepted as pilot/experimenting units

Step2: Conduct an ecocity plan, an outline

Set up ecocity objectives

Survey on current situation

Comprehensive analysis on existing master plan and sectoral plans

Analysis and adjustment

Recommendations, with proposals for construction projects

Step3: Implement the ecocity plan

Establishing administrative leading group

Assign tasks

Highlight projects (e.g., eco-community, eco-industrial park…)

All-round promotion, public participation

Legal actions

Step4: Official nomination

Monitoring and self-evaluation

Applying for reviewing from MoEP, from province to MoEP

Nomination by MoEP as state-level Eco-district/county/city

Step5: Maintenance and management

Management office

Coordination timely among governmental departments

Annual reports


The 6 cities, 3 counties and 2 urban districts, officially nominated by MoEP as eco-areas, Aug 2008

Miyun & Yanqing Counties of Beijing

Rongcheng City

Jiangyin City

4 cities: Zhangjiagang, Changshu, Kunshan, and Taicang under Suzhou

Anji County of Zhejiang

Minghang District of Shanghai

Yantian District of Shenzhen

Provinces for EBD

Observation: the location of the nominates eco-city/county/district and the provinces aiming to eco-development …

the 2003 evaluation 28 indices for ecocity
The 2003 evaluation 28 indices for ecocity

Per capita GDP

Urban lifeline system

Drinking water Sewage treatment

Industrial wastewater reuse

Forest coverage

Per capita financial income

Urbanization level

Proportion of protected area

Gas utilization rate

Peasants income per person

Noise level

Rate of centralized heating

Degraded land rehabilitation rate

Urban citizen income per person

Solid waste Disposal

Industrial waste reuse rate

Engel coefficient

Percentage of third industry

Air quality (S,N)

Gini coefficient

Energy consump. per unit GDP

Higher edu. rate

Water quality: urban & coastal

Urban green area per capita

Water consump. per unit GDP

Envir. Edu. rate

SO2, COD emission

Clean production enterprises rate, ISO14000

Envir. Quality of tourism areas

Public satisfaction rate to environment

Economic indices

Env & Resc. indices

Social indices

the 2008 evaluation 19 indices for ecocity
The 2008 evaluation 19 indices for ecocity

Rural per capita income

Urbanization level

Forest coverage

Drinking water quality

Percentage share of third industry

Proportion of protected area

Ratio of urban sewage treatment

Coverage of centralized heat-supply

Energy consumption per unit GDP

Air quality

Noise level

Public satisfaction rate to environment

Corporation qualified in CPA

Water quality

Disposal rate of

Solid waste

Fresh water consumption per capita IAV

COD & SO2 emission intensity

Urban green area per capita

Investment ratio for environment

Economic indices

Env & Resc. indices

Social indices

CPA: cleaner production audit

IAV: industrial added value


Setting up


Set up


Master Plan


is weak

Sectoral Plans










Existing Plan






among sectors




Adjustment to existing plans

Constructional projects

Monitoring program



Legal action


Ecocity planning procedure

eco city management
Eco-city management

Approve the eco-plan and go through a legal procedure

Establish an office to coordinate various sectors, functions:

Under the municipal government or local EPB

Edit and publish eco-development news bulletins

Coordinate monitoring and feedbacks

Timely meetings

Report progresses to the municipal government and to the public

Implement policies/measures/projects by corresponding departments, e.g. “cell projects”

Annual assessment and report to MoEP


Local EPB or the coordinating office does not have the authority…

Often lack of long-term functioning of the office

If other activities seem more important …


EcoCity program is continuing..

14 were announced in Oct 2010;

14 were announced in April 2011.

Miyun & Yanqing Counties of Beijing

Rongcheng City

Jiangyin City

4 cities: Zhangjiagang, Changshu, Kunshan, and Taicang under Suzhou

Anji County of Zhejiang

Minghang District of Shanghai

Yantian District of Shenzhen

example eco district building projects
Example eco-district building projects

Beijing: Changxindian长辛店,Mentougou门头沟

Shanghai: Chongming Island 崇明岛,

Tianjin: Sino-Singapore Tianjin 天津滨海新区

Chongqing: in cooperation with UK

Hebei: Caofeidian曹妃甸, Wanzhuang万庄, Tangshan Nanhu唐山南湖, Shijiazhuang 石家庄, Zhangjiakou张家口

Zhejiang: Hangzhou Baimahu杭州白马湖, Hushan虎山, Hongtang宁波洪塘

Yunnan: Kunming 昆明世博园, Yuxi玉溪

Shandong: Linyi临沂, Qingdao 青岛, Qixi栖霞, Junan莒南, Dongying东营, Zibo 淄博, Yantai烟台, Laiyang莱阳, Qingzhou青州

Heilongjiang: Shuangyashan双鸭山, Harbin 哈尔滨, Daqing大庆

Jilin: Changchun 长春

Liaoning: Shenyang 沈阳, Fushun 抚顺

Sichuan: Zigong 自贡, Guang’an广安, Chengdu 成都

Jiangsu: Changshu常熟, Lianyungang连云港, Yangzhou 杨州, West TaihuLake 西太湖, Siyang泗阳

Guangdong: Shenzhen 深圳, Foshan佛山, Huizhou 惠州

Hubei: Xianning咸宁, Ezhou鄂州梁子湖南山 VTT involved

Henan: Zhengzhou 郑州, Yongcheng永城, Suiping遂平

Jiangxi: Nanchang 南昌, Gongqingcheng共青城, Yongfeng永丰

Hunan: Huaihua_ , Changsha长沙岳麓

Anhui: Hefei 合肥

Fujian: Fuzhou 福州, Changle长乐

Guizhou: Guiyang 贵阳

Xinjiang: Changji昌吉, Habahe哈巴河

According to media:

In 22 megacities/provinces, more than 50 projects …as to 2008


Tangshan: Nan Hu

Hebei: Wan Zhuang

chongming island is part of shanghai
Chongming Island is part of Shanghai

Chongming eco-island development is an important part of Shanghai sustainable development strategy

EXPO concept is to be implemented in Chongming

Challenge: the impact of the completion of cross Yangtze tunnel/bridge

The 3 islands, Chongming, Changxing, and Hengsha

This is Dongtan


events and progresses
Events and progresses

2001, State Council approved “Shanghai City Development Master Plan (1999-2020)” which put forth Chongming eco-island development;

2005, Shanghai approved “Chongming Three-Island Development Master Plan (2005-2020)” which design Chongming as a Comprehensive Eco-Island;

Jan 2010, Shanghai Municipal Government promulgated “Outline of Chongming Eco-Island Development (2010-2020)”

Mar 2010, MoST approved Chongming as a national experimenting county for sustainable development (In 2009, MoST initiated key projects for low carbon development in Chongming and key technologies application and demonstration; also other important technical projects)

July 2010, Shanghai Chongming Eco-Island International Forum

International cooperation: UNEP, Hawaii State of US, Japan Association on Environmental Art and Culture

To build 5 demonstration zones: low carbon consumption, low carbon industry garden, low carbon agricultural garden, natural carbon increasing, and low carbon ecological tourism etc.



comprehensive eco-island


marine equip-island


eco-leisure island

Chongming Global Level Eco-Island Planning

Chongming Eco-Island Development Outline (2010-2020), Shanghai Municipal Development and Reform Commission, Jan 20, 2010


Combination of national strategy, Shanghai responsibility and Chongming Island desire.

Low carbon, ecological and modernized development

Protect the Yangtze River mouth environment and ecology


Promote harmonic development of resource, environment, industry, infrastructure, and social service etc.

Perfect functional allocation of the island

Establish eco-island assessment indicator system

Emphasize sustainability of natural resource, renewable energy, circular economy; improve water and air quality, noise level, solid waste management; promote energy saving and pollutant emission reduction; optimize industrial structure; note social service and infrastructure; enhance public participation in governance etc.


Part of Chongming:

Dongtan eco- planning 2005/2007

  • Area: total 215 ha, urban 73 ha, ecological park 142 ha;
  • Green area per capita: 27 m2
  • Housing: low rise & high density – 3 to 8 storey / 1.45 average plot ratio / 75 dwelling per ha / 80,000 people
  • Transport accessibility: 3 minutes walking, 240 m
call for eco civilization
Call for eco-civilization
  • The need:
    • Unhealthy development still happens;
    • Unlawful/unreasonable activities;
    • Change in behavior, life style …
  • Launched in Oct. 2007 at the 17th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, written in the report; It represents an ethical, cultural, and institutional enhancement on ecological development
  • More recently, at the 18th NC of CCP, a special chapter,
importance of eco civilization
Importance of eco-civilization
  • A high sense of responsibility to ecological development and global ecologic system
  • Long term importance of China’s development, also of the world’s ecological security
  • Great significance to develop eco-civilization in China:
    • Huge population
    • Large territory
    • Glorious history
    • Profound culture
    • Unique language
    • Special institutional system (strong and highly efficient governance)
    • Distinctive society, and
    • Rapid economic development
importance of eco civilization1
Importance of eco-civilization
  • Eco-Civilization refers to the culture and ethics with which human society development in harmony with nature and the consideration of future generations.
  • Eco-civilization emphasizes human consciousness and self-regulation, mutual dependence, promotion, and symbiosis with nature, and harmony among human.
  • Eco-civilization is the result of the profound rethinking on the traditional industrial civilization, so that an important progress of the ethics, approach and mode of human development.
eco civilization
  • Eco-civilization concept was put forth in the report of the 17th National Congress; In the 18th, it is a separate chapter in parallel with the developments of economy, politics, culture, and society.
  • Concept, objectives, 虽然十七大报告就提出了生态文明的理念,但在十八大报告中把生态文明独立成篇,作为单独的一个部分,和经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设并列,这是一个亮点。这个亮点就体现在,它完整、系统阐述了未来五年我们生态文明建设的理念是什么、方针是什么、途径是什么、具体的目标是什么。
  • 十八大报告提出‘努力建设美丽中国’
eco civilization at the 18th national congress of ccp
Eco-civilization at the 18th National Congress of CCP
  • Challenges of resource restriction, heavy environmental pollution, and ecological deterioration; respect nature, follow nature, protect nature; integrate eco-civilization with all aspects of economic, politic, cultural, and social development; to build a beautiful China for sustainable development.
  • Insist in “resource saving and environment protection” as a basic state policy, resource saving, protection, remediation; green/circular/low carbon development, …
measures to take
Measures to take:
  • Optimize spatial development setup (planning); for a harmonic development among population/resource/environment and economy/society/ecology …
  • Promote resource saving; energy, water, and land; reduce their consuming rate; raise efficiency; support low carbon industry and renewable energy, …
  • Enhance protection for natural eco-system and environment; …water, air, and land, … reduce GHG emissions, climate change response …
  • Strengthen institutional development; economic/social development evaluation system, indicator systems, … 加强生态文明制度建设。保护生态环境必须依靠制度。要把资源消耗、环境损害、生态效益纳入经济社会发展评价体系,建立体现生态文明要求的目标体系、考核办法、奖惩机制。建立国土空间开发保护制度,完善最严格的耕地保护制度、水资源管理制度、环境保护制度。深化资源性产品价格和税费改革,建立反映市场供求和资源稀缺程度、体现生态价值和代际补偿的资源有偿使用制度和生态补偿制度。积极开展节能量、碳排放权、排污权、水权交易试点。加强环境监管,健全生态环境保护责任追究制度和环境损害赔偿制度。加强生态文明宣传教育,增强全民节约意识、环保意识、生态意识,形成合理消费的社会风尚,营造爱护生态环境的良好风气。
The characteristics of eco-development in China:

Regionaldevelopment is emphasized, with sustainable development as the objective;

Not only the harmonic relationship between human society and nature, but also the relationship with economic development;

Large population, severe pollution, restricted resource, large gaps between poor/rich, urban/rural, eastern/western etc. ;

Rapid economic development and urbanization (dynamic) …

Powerful governance, numerous people (and officers) are involved, so that with great significance.

Although the management of the ecocity demonstration program is by MoEP and local EPBs, and the management is relatively weak, the ecocity concept is integrated with many aspects of governmental daily work. For example, the compulsory requirement of “energy saving and (key pollutants) emission reduction”.


MoEP is a sectoral ministry. …

Current ecocity planning team is mostly of environmental and/or ecological profession …

Difficulties in planning and implementation because of growing urban population, existing severe pollution, and cross-boundary pollutant transport …

Eco-city management is rather weak. In most cases, there is an office at local EPB for coordination and annual assessment and report;

For projects of local governments, input/output analysis is not provided;

The sustainability of eco-cities themselves is not sufficiently discussed.

  • Conclusion:
    • Due to imbalance development, ecocity in China should have local characteristics;
    • Nation-wide programs are specifically important in the sense of ESD and SD practice;
    • Ecocity concept needs to be developed for self-sustainability;
    • Eco-demonstration and eco-civilization developmenthas long term significance both to China and the world.
xiao kang in chinese culture
“Xiao Kang” in Chinese culture

The term “Xiao Kang” firstly appeared in Chinese literature some 500 years BC

“Xiao” means small or moderate, “Kang” means working hard and living comfort in comparison to poverty, but not rich;

“Xiaokang Society” refers to moderate development, or the midway of development destination;

“Xiaokang” is important because it is of Chinese characteristics of development, and it implies sustainable development (behavior and life expectation) based on China’s situation.


Example: the early understanding of “Xiao Kang” in countryside

1 mu =666.7 m2, or 1 m2 = 0.0015 mu.

Here “kang” is a kind of bed in northern China, made of soil with ducts connected to stove / furnace

“2 mus of land and a cow; wife, kids and a warm bed(kang)”

xiao kang in modern china
“Xiao Kang” in modern China

Officially appeared when DENG Xiaoping was meeting the then Japan Premier Mr. Ohira Masayoshi on Dec. 6, 1979. “The Four Modernizations that we are aiming for are of Chinese sense. Our concept of modernization is not the same as that of you people, but ‘Xiao Kang’ family. To the end of this century, even if China would have obtained some achievements in modernization, the GDP per capita would still be fairly low. To reach a level that is relatively high in developing countries, say GDP per capita as USD 1000, a lot of efforts must be made. And it is still backward comparing with the developed world. Therefore, I would rather say, China then would still be in a status of ‘Xiao Kang’.” Deng re-stated “Xiao Kang” in 1980, 1982, 1984 and 1986 … Since then, “Xiao Kang Society” has been referred to as the development target of China.

The China of 2020 envisioned by China's Communist leaders was first introduced to the world as a "well-off society" in a Party report in 2002 at the Party's 16th National Congress and changed to a "moderately prosperous society" in an annual government work report two years later.


China is a special country. Its development cannot be thought to follow the experience of developed countries;

“Xiao Kang” society is now the development target of China;

There now appear a number of indicator systems to monitor the development of “Xiao Kang”;

However, there are also grass route understanding, such as: “tall buildings and public parks instead of houses and private gardens, orbital transportation and two-wheels instead of driving cars…”. This idea matches the concept of sustainable development;

It is also a feature in Chinese culture.


Many difficulties and opportunities

Population control

Economy restructuring

Alternative and renewable energies

Low carbon development

Living standard

Ecological civilization

Sustainable development

xiaokang society at the 18th national congress of ccp
“XiaoKang” Society at the 18th National Congress of CCP
  • Objectives
  • Healthy economic development: 转变经济发展方式取得重大进展,在发展平衡性、协调性、可持续性明显增强的基础上,实现国内生产总值和城乡居民人均收入比二0一0年翻一番。科技进步对经济增长的贡献率大幅上升,进入创新型国家行列。工业化基本实现,信息化水平大幅提升,城镇化质量明显提高,农业现代化和社会主义新农村建设成效显著,区域协调发展机制基本形成。对外开放水平进一步提高,国际竞争力明显增强。
  • Democracy ——人民民主不断扩大。民主制度更加完善,民主形式更加丰富,人民积极性、主动性、创造性进一步发挥。依法治国基本方略全面落实,法治政府基本建成,司法公信力不断提高,人权得到切实尊重和保障。
  • Cultural 文化软实力显著增强。社会主义核心价值体系深入人心,公民文明素质和社会文明程度明显提高。文化产品更加丰富,公共文化服务体系基本建成,文化产业成为国民经济支柱性产业,中华文化走出去迈出更大步伐,社会主义文化强国建设基础更加坚实。
  • Living standard: 人民生活水平全面提高。基本公共服务均等化总体实现,全民受教育程度和创新人才培养水平明显提高,进入人才强国和人力资源强国行列,教育现代化基本实现。就业更加充分。收入分配差距缩小,中等收入群体持续扩大,扶贫对象大幅减少。社会保障全民覆盖,人人享有基本医疗卫生服务,住房保障体系基本形成,社会和谐稳定。
  • Resource saving and environmental friendly资源节约型、环境友好型社会建设取得重大进展。主体功能区布局基本形成,资源循环利用体系初步建立。单位国内生产总值能源消耗和二氧化碳排放大幅下降,主要污染物排放总量显著减少。森林覆盖率提高,生态系统稳定性增强,人居环境明显改善。