IEPs for Students with Significant Disabilities: A Standards-Based Approach August 2009
Big Ideas Access Guide Navigation Shift to academic standards/Extended Standards Linkage to grade level content Developing goals and objectives AIM Literacy as a bridge to access curriculum
Curriculum Access – Students with Significant Disabilities Changing Expectations Changing Practices Changing Outcomes Shifts Happen…
History of Curriculum for Students with Significant Disabilities 1960’s – Institutionalization 1970’s – Deinstitutionalization Movement 1990’s – Inclusive Education Developmental Curriculum Functional Curriculum Academic Content Browder University of Kentucky - NAAC
Legal → Impact on practices IDEA 04 access to the general education curriculum raised expectations for all through challenging academic standards use of alternate assessment aligned to academic content standards at grade-level NCLB alternate assessments for students with significant disabilities aligned to grade-level content accountability
LAA 1 Participation Criteria Evidence of a Significant Cognitive Disability (3 or more Standard Deviations below the mean) Instructional Needs and Curricular Alignment (aligned to Extended Standards) Student Safeguards
Shift to academic focus Foundation Skills Content Standards Benchmarks Grade Level Expectations
General Education Curriculum Foundation Skills and Content Standards GLEs and Extended Standards Comprehensive Curriculum Activities Benchmarks 8
Foundation Skills 1. communication 2. problem solving 3. resource access and utilization 4. linking and generating knowledge 5. citizenship http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/saa/1513.html
What are Louisiana Extended Standards? developed for students participating in LAA1 only based on benchmarks and GLEs ELA, mathematics, and science capture the essence of the GLEs core academic content that may be assessed at each grade span (3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-12) http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/11618.pdf
Extended Standards articulate academic learning from one grade to the next facilitate access to grade level content move from the concrete to the abstract attend to prerequisite skills and understandings do not constitute a separate curriculum NOTE: Students in LAA1 must have access to the broad general education curriculum as well 11
Extended Standards Complexity Levels Three complexity levels Descriptions of varying opportunities to access the academic content Level 1: least complex; reflects initial encounter with content Level 2: more complex application of the extended standards Level 3: even more complex learning situations (e.g., comprehension and subsequent processing of discourse, text, and underlying text structure.) Mastery of an extended standard generally indicated by a student performing at level 3. 12
Grades 3-4 English Language Arts
5-6 Grade English Language Arts
Grades 7-8 English Language Arts
9-12 Grade English Language Arts
Standards, Benchmark, GLEs, Extended Standards Standard One Students read, comprehend, and respond to a range of materials, using a variety of strategies for different purposes. Benchmark:ELA-1-M1―using knowledge of word meaning and developing basic and technical vocabulary using various strategies (e.g., context clues, idioms, affixes, etymology, multiple-meaning words (1, 4); GLE 5th grade (R/R) 1. Identify word meanings using a variety of strategies, including: • using context clues (e.g., definition, restatement, example, contrast) • using structural analysis (e.g., base words, roots, affixes) • determining word origins (etymology) • using electronic and print dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries (ELA-1-M1) Extended Standard ES-1/1: • Identify word meanings using context clues Complexity Level 3. Use a homophone correctly 2. Identify the correct meaning of a homophone in a sentence or phrase 1. Identify a multiple-meaning word or a homophone used in text (e.g., fall; sail/sale) 17
Students with most significant cognitive disabilities should: Be taught academic content because it is “functional” and socially valid Not have to wait until they are able to make a bed before they are taught to read or before they are taught literature Be presumed competent and not denied instruction offered to students of the same age (grade level content standards and curriculum) Adapted from National Alternate Achievement Center, www.naacpartners.org
What about the unique needs of students with disabilities? IEP Must address general education curriculum Must address any other needs that result from a student’s disability Individualization is recognized and required
What about functional skills? Students with most significant cognitive disabilities should: Address functional skills through the IEP Embed within academic and natural daily routines Assess via classroom instruction, not LAA1
Assuring Alignment CONTENT INSTRUCT ASSESS IEP
The IEP: What it should be! Tool to support alignment of classroom instruction to the student’s needs and the state assessment Individualized - Address needs which result from a child’s disability Inclusive of needs which occur outside of the general curriculum (e.g., social and behavioral skills) Working document that guides the instructional team
The IEP: What it is not! Is not a separate curriculum Should not be a reiteration of what already exists in the Benchmarks, GLEs, and/or Extended Standards Does not address all content/skills that the students will need to learn across the school year NOT merely a compliance document
Summary: Implications for students Provide Access to the broad general education curriculum, not just the Extended Standards The Extended Standards do not constitute a separate curriculum Address a variety of GLEs at grade level Partial participation Curriculum content increases in complexity over time Change/growth over time
Summary: Continued Address scope and sequence At appropriate complexity level Use grade level instructional materials in appropriate alternate formats (AIM) Teach functional skills as determined by the IEP team practice skills within the context of general education academic routines
Essential Issues These are concepts and practices which have been researched and found to be effective and critical elements of a student’s education program.
Essential Issues Ability to contribute Age-appropriateness Assistive technology Friendships Future-oriented Generalization Inclusion http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/Site%20Pages/Instruction.aspx
Essential Issues (continued) Partial participation Positive behavioral support Self-determination Student dignity Student preferences
Middle and High School Considerations Community Access Vocational Training/Employment Foundation skills Increased attention to these broad outcomes http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/saa/1513.html
Reading: Lack of Knowledge regarding Students with Significant Disabilities Lack of focus on reading for this population In the last 20 years, while the “science of reading” has been developing, the focus in severe disabilities has been functional life skills (Browder) Limited research - Unknown possibilities Next step to apply what is known from the “science of reading” to develop powerful, longitudinal reading interventions (Browder)
The Opportunity to Learn Reading Because… Students’ “potential” to make progress is unknown without the opportunity to learn Students who are not disabled are not required to master all life skills before getting to learn to read Academic instruction for students who are nondisabled does not end at the first sign of “no progress” Reading is a “pivotal skill” that can enhance adult outcomes; reading is functional Even if students do not become literate, the acquisition of early literacy skills can open opportunities to enjoy and benefit from a wide range of age and grade appropriate literature Browder, Diane M. & Jimenez, Bree
Literacy: General Consideration Teaching to instructional level Emergent literacy Using age appropriate literature and activities
IDEA: Assistive Technology Consider AT* for EVERY student Universal Design Ensure AIM (Section 300.172) *any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially or off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities
What is AIM? • Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM) • Core instructional materials in formats other than the print-based, hard-copy materials • Alternate formats • Braille • large print • audio material • digital media • more specialized formats • varied font style, size, color • picture-symbols • structured styles • Provided in a timely manner
Who is Eligible for AIM? Criteria i and ii: blind, visually impaired Criteria iii: physical limitations Criteria iv:Persons certified by competent authority as having a reading disability resulting from organic dysfunction and of sufficient severity to prevent their reading printed material in a normal manner.
Certifying “Print Disability” http://www.atanswers.com/aim/ • District Competent Authority certifies “print disability” • District Responsibility • Superintendent identifies the District’s Competent Authority • May be staff assigned by Superintendent • May include multiple members based on student criteria • District maintains a record of student eligibility • District informs state AU of student eligibility at request for alternate format
Your Role in the AIM Process Confer with your LEA on procedures for identifying student as having a print disability Who is your Competent Authority? What action steps do you need to take in this matter? At the IEP, discuss a student’s possible need for AIM (whether or not a print disability has been determined) Document need on the IEP Ensure parents understand student’s AIM rights.
Your role (continued) Confer with LEA on method to secure AIM in a timely manner. What are your local resources? Deadlines for ordering? Ensure your students have the materials they require. Ensure all staff/faculty support use of AIM. Identify instruction, supports, services, and/or training that will be needed by the student and others to use the materials effectively
Determining Need *print-based core materials are textbooks, workbooks, worksheets, basal textbooks and reproducible materials printed on paper, in book, or single sheet format Given standard *print-based curriculum materials used in the content areas, does the student have difficulty accessing or gaining meaning from these materials?
Alternate Formats • Alternate Formats • enlarged print • Braille • audio • digital Identify any changes to format of standard print material that the student needs.
Specialized Formats • Specialized Formats • Electronic Text • Picture-symbols • Color of text or background color • Use of Style Sheet structure for headings, subheadings, etc. Identify any changes to style of standard print material that the student needs.
Accommodations Page The Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM) formats have been identified by blue font. 2 additional formats have been added
HELP pages (7/1/09) What is AIM? Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM) are core and core-related instructional materials in formats other than the print-based, hard-copy materials such as textbooks, worksheets, workbooks and teacher-printed handouts. AIM provide varied options for media for students who are unable to access the print-based materials due to issues such as visual impairments, reading disabilities, or physical disabilities. These students may require an alternate format such as Braille, large print, digital media, or audio material. Digital formats can be further rendered into more specialized formats such as a specific font style, size or color, picture-symbols, or structured styles. If a student requires AIM, the LEA is responsible for the provision of the accessible format. For more information go to AIM website http://www.atanswers.com/aim/
HELP pages (7/1/09) Utilize large print: The student may be provided with books/materials that have been printed with enlarged text Utilize Braille: The student may be provided with or books/materials that have been brailled. On the Accommodations Page under Materials: Utilize audio/recorded book: The student may be provided with recordings of print-based media in a recoded, taped, CD, DVD, MP3, SMF, TSP, WAV or other digital file format that provides access to the text by listening. Utilize digital formats:The student may be provided with print-based media in formats such as electronic text (txt), PDF, RTF, DAISY, XML, KSE, HTML, NIMAS or other formats that can be further rendered into specialized modes easily accessible by the user (e.g., Braille, picture-symbols, enlarged text, colored fonts, style sheets), downloaded into the user’s device, or transmitted electronically over distance.
Two additional types of materials (7/1/09) Utilize graphic/pictorial mode materials: The student may be provided with graphical/pictorial mode materials that are a specialized style of re-formatting electronic text to provide a picture representation of the word, similar to a rebus story. Pictures and symbols are typically placed together with the picture above the text or vice-versa to promote association of the picture and text. Utilize print with magnification:The student may be provided with class materials (books, handouts, tests, etc.) and will utilize assistive technology that will magnify the print. The assistive technology device(s) could include, but is not limited to, hand-held magnifiers, stand magnifiers, CCTV, portable magnification device, etc.
How will the team obtain AIM? Order from LA Book Depository Order from LIMC (blind/low-vision) Request NIMAC file from the Louisiana Authorized User (AU) Order within district resources Order the CD-ROM or audio version direct from the vendor Order from Bookshare.org Teacher-Created Other Resources
Resources Tarheelreader.org Bookshare.org Access Guide (http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov) Tumble Books (http://www.livingston.lib.la.us/ Don Johnson - Literacy Starters http://www.donjohnston.com/products/start_to_finish/literacy/index.html
Adapted/Alternate Materials Age considerate? Tied to grade-level curriculum? Appropriate for student’s learning level (e.g., language complexity, symbolic level)? Matched to accommodation needs (e.g., laminated, page flippers)? Would typical peers feel comfortable using the products (The eye roll test)? Enhance or detract from student dignity? Reflect student interest?
Materials easily replaced if lost or destroyed? Regular ed teachers require use of similar materials? Peers/gen. ed teachers easily use the materials with the student? Parents understand materials/support use at home? Easily adapted/utilized across curriculum areas and across the day (e.g. a template that can used for different activities)? Did I slide into a “developmental” approach rather than an age-appropriate academic approach?