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Response to Intervention. Emily Blake Cherie Vannatter. Too many students eligible as Learning Disabled IQ/Achievement discrepancy often inconsistent from school to school IDEA allows Response to Intervention to identify LD students RTI

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response to intervention

Response to Intervention

Emily Blake

Cherie Vannatter


Too many students eligible as Learning Disabled

IQ/Achievement discrepancy often inconsistent from school to school

IDEA allows Response to Intervention to identify LD students


Multi-tiered instructional services (increased intensity with each tier)

Scientifically based interventions

Regularly monitored

Customized to meet individual needs

Will RTI reduce the number of students found eligible for special education programs and services?

“Tiers of Intervention in Kindergarten Through Third Grade”Rollanda O’Connor, Kristen Harty & Deborah Fulmer
  • Tier 1 - Professional Development
  • Tier 2 - Small Group (2-3 students),

10-15 minutes, 3 days/week

  • Tier 3 - Individual or group of 2,

30 minutes, 5 days/week

2 schools 20 teachers 100 students per grade level kindergarten to third grade
2 schools, 20 Teachers, 100 students per grade level(Kindergarten to Third Grade)

Reading Development including:

  • Decoding
  • Word Identification
  • Fluency
  • Reading Comprehension
best practices
Best Practices
  • Multi-tiered instruction
  • Evaluation of model
  • Data-based improvement plan

Q. How?

A. Workable schedule for instruction

difficulties schools face
Difficulties Schools Face
  • Time
  • Shifting role of personnel
  • Collaboration and strong communication
  • Ongoing professional development
  • Personnel changing from year to year
rti behavior study douglas cheney andrea flower tran templeton
RTI Behavior StudyDouglas Cheney, Andrea Flower, Tran Templeton
  • Purpose: Improve student performance on classroom and school-wide expectations
  • Who: 1st – 3rd graders

(full time paraprofessional)

  • When: October 2005-June 2007
  • What: Check in, DPR, visits, check out
study results
Study Results
  • 67% of the students were responders to the behavior intervention.
  • 91% of those responders were not identified for special education.
  • Overall, it reduced at-risk status and assisted in prevention of developing emotional/behavioral disabilities.
responsible thinking process rtp
Responsible Thinking Process (RTP)
  • Perceptual Control Theory
  • What actions are you showing and how does it relate to your values and priorities?
  • What do you want to achieve and how can you reach your goal while respecting others?
positive behavior support pbs
Positive Behavior Support (PBS)
  • Reduce and eliminate inappropriate behaviors
  • FBA & BIP
  • General education students as well as special education students

O’Connor, R.E., Harty, K.R., & Fulmer, D. (2005). Tiers of intervention in kindergarten through third grade. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 532-538.

Shapiro, E.S. (n.d.). Tiered instruction and intervention in a response- to- intervention model. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from

Smith, J.L.M., Fien, H., Basaraba, D., & Travers, P. (2009). Planning, evaluating, and improving tiers of support in beginning reading. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41 (5), 16-22.


Cheney, D., Flower, A., Templeton, T. (2008). Applying response to intervention metrics in the social domain for students at risk of developing emotional or behavioral disorders. The Journal of Special Education, 42, 108-126. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from SAGE.

De Jong, T. (2005). A framework of principles and best practice for managing student behaviour in the australian education context. School Psychology International, 26, 353-370. Retrieved May 31, 2009 from SAGE.

Sharma, R., Singh, S., Geromette, J. (2008). Positive behavior support strategies for young children with severe disruptive behavior. Journal of International Association of Special Education, 9, no 1. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from Wilson Web.