RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavioral Intervention Plans (FBA/BIP) LARRY SCOTT School Psychologist Ken-Ton School District
Punishment & Suspension • There is no evidence that suspension works- it has been ineffective in changing behavior, it often only worsens behavior • Long-term suspension leads to negative attitudes toward school, poor attendance / work performance, and negative perception of teachers • Suspension is associated with increased defiance, more severe problem behavior, school failure and drop out, and contact with the juvenile justice system
Punishment & Suspension • Black and malestudents are historically overrepresented in suspensions and expulsions • Males are at least twice as likely to be suspended and expelled • Many studies show inequality in disciplinary responses and consequences: Black and male students are more likely to be suspended and more harshly for similar offenses • 66% of Blackmale students who received free/reduced lunch and were in special education were suspended at least once, only 2% of White females who paid for lunch and in regular ed. were suspended (Raffaele Mendez, 2003) • We need to explore alternative approaches proven to work: cognitive-behavioral and restorative justice
Philosophy & Purpose of FBA/BIP • To better understand the function of a student’s behavior in a school/classroom environment. • Environmental/situational factors create and maintain problem behavior. • All behavior serves a function or purpose in an environment, setting, or situation. • To establish systemic interventions to change how a student interacts with the environment and replace problem behavior with pro-social behavior • The FBA & BIP should be viewed as a single, continuous process. • The FBA/BIP report is a “living document” which is not fixed and can be changed. • Intervention should address the function of problem behavior.
State Regulations An FBA/BIP must be considered for students with a disability or for students suspected of disability when: • The student displays persistent behavior that impedes his or her learning or that of others, despite consistently implemented general school-wide and classroom-wide interventions. • Behavior places student or others at risk of harm or injury. • More-restrictive placement as a result of behavior is being considered. • Multiple days of suspension. • If manifestation is found in a hearing. * Parent consent must be obtained to conduct an FBA/BIP
2006 State Amendments Baseline Data • An FBA must include quantitative data that can be used to measure progress of behavior and effectiveness of interventions. • Must include frequency, duration, intensity, and/or latency of behavior across activities, settings, people, and times of day. Progress Monitoring • A BIP must include progress monitoring of the frequency, duration, and intensity of targeted behaviors and behavioral interventions at scheduled intervals. • Results should be documented and reported to student’s parents and CSE. Student Involvement • Student must be involved in the BIP process (Interview, Reinforcement Survey, Motivation Assessment, Interest Survey, Behavior Contract…)
Response to Intervention (RTI) • State regulations on FBA/BIP encompass an RTI approach. Continuum of Behavioral Interventions: Individualized Systems for HIGH-Risk Behavior 5% Specialized Group Systems for At-Risk Behavior 15% School- / Classroom-wide Systems 80% of students
Resistance to Intervention • Previous approaches (i.e. formal assessment) to classifying students with emotional/behavioral needs have been found to be highly unreliable, invalid, and impractical for intervention (Gersham, 1992). • “A lack of change in target behaviors as a function of intervention. Given that the goal of all interventions is to produce a discrepancy between baseline and post-intervention levels of performance, the failure to produce such a discrepancy can be taken as partial evidence for classification (Gresham, 1992).
Limitations to FBA/BIP • Poor collaboration and follow through from home. • Poor collaboration and follow through with community-based professionals. • Severe mental illness that is untreated or mistreated. • Substance abuse and illegal activity. • The Human Factor
FBA/BIP Flow Chart Identify Target Behaviors Collect Baseline Data Determine Triggers and Consequences Determine Function of Behavior Develop Hypothesis Develop and Implement Behavioral Interventions Monitor Progress
Target Behaviors • Specifically identify two of the most problematic behaviors that you want to change. • Must be well-defined, observable, and measurable. • Be objective and avoid opinion statements and personal feelings. • The “stranger test” • Ex. – Johnny is violent (vs.) Johnny punches, kicks, throws objects, bites, destroys objects, spits…)
Collecting Baseline Data Think of data as asking a “how” question: How much, how often, how long, how many… 2 Broad Types of Data Collection: 1. Event Recording and Timed-Interval Recording-Tracking actual target behaviors through direct observation. • Gives most detailed information on behavior. • Requires time, staff, and resources. 2. Outcome Recording- Gathering data available through records (i.e. discipline referrals) and systematic interventions (i.e. classroom-wide behavioral programs). • All behavior produces a response or an outcome. Relative frequency, duration, and severity of target behaviors can be obtained by gathering available data in our schools.
Function of Behavior • Sensory/Perceptual • Gain Desired Item, Activity, Area • Escape/Avoidance • Attention/Control
Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) • FBA and BIP should be viewed as a unit. • FBA data assists the development and evaluation of BIP. They should be viewed as a single, continuous process rather than separate systems. • Interventions should address the various factors that affect a student.
Involving the Student & Intervention • Interview • Interest Inventory • Motivation Assessment • Reinforcement Survey • Behavior Contract • Individualized Behavioral Modification System • Daily/Weekly Report • Incentives: Earn Positive Social Experience • Connections Program • Sports Club • Counseling & Community Resources • Activity & Exercise
Progress Monitoring • Continue to collect data after implementing interventions to assess change in behavior and effectiveness of interventions. • Carefully document interventions implemented. Rule of Thumb:Document anything that you do more of or differently than with most students. • A behavior modification system can be developed in a way that measures target behaviors. • Establish evaluation schedule and team meeting time to assess/modify plan. • Keep parents informed and involved.
References • Gresham, F. M. (1992). Conceptualizing behavior disorders in terms of resistance to intervention. School Psychology Review, 20, 23-37. • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act – Amendments to Rules of the Board of Regents and Regulations of the Commissioner of Education (NYS), Part 200.1 (r), June 23, 2006. • Wright, J. (2006). www.jimwrightonline.com, www.interventioncentral.org