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Politics of the Roaring Twenties. US History Mr. Ishmael. United States: 1920 – Warren G. Harding is elected President (He died in 1923) 1927 – Henry Ford introduces the Model A. automobile. World: 1921 - Chinese Communist party is founded in Shanghai.

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timeline what s going on
United States:

1920 – Warren G. Harding is elected President (He died in 1923)

1927 – Henry Ford introduces the Model A. automobile.

World:

1921 - Chinese Communist party is founded in Shanghai.

1922 - Mussolini is appointed prime minister of Italy.

Timeline: What’s Going On?
section 1 objectives
Section 1: Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:
  • 1. Summarize the reaction in the United States to the perceived threat of communism.
  • 2. Analyze the causes and effects of the quota system in the United States.
  • 3. Describe some of the postwar conflicts between labor and management.
section 1 americans struggle with postwar issues
Section 1: Americans Struggle With Postwar Issues

Main Idea: A desire for normalcy after the war and a fear of communism and “foreigners” led to postwar isolationism.

Why it Matters Now: Americans today continue to debate political isolationism and immigration policy.

Key Terms:

Nativism

Isolationism

Communism

Anarchists

Quota System

Key Names:

Sacco and Vanzetti

John L. Lewis

which of the following topics did you find most interesting from the video yesterday

20

Which of the following topics did you find most interesting from the video yesterday?
  • Prohibition
  • The flappers
  • Sacco and Vanzetti
  • The Scopes Trial
  • The Red Scare
  • The Birth of Jazz
  • The Rise of the Automobile
  • Hey! Mine isn’t here!
postwar trends
Postwar Trends:
  • WW I had left America exhausted.
  • Soldiers returning from war face unemployment
  • The economy was badly bruised ($ for the war)
  • Cost of living had doubled
  • Americans started to become fearful of outsiders (jobs, safety)
nativism and isolationism
Nativism and Isolationism:
  • Nativism – Prejudice against foreign-born people
  • Isolationism – Policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs.
  • Why do you think these two things caught on in America after the war?
fear of communism
Fear of Communism:
  • People were fearful that Communists were trying to take over America.
  • Communism – An economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship.
  • A Communist Party formed in the US – 70,000 people joined.
  • Bombs were mailed to government offices and buildings.
  • This time period became known as the “Red Scare”
palmer raids
Palmer Raids:
  • Government officials began hunting down suspected communists, socialists, and anarchists.
  • Anarchist – People who oppose any form of government.
  • In the Palmer Raids, private homes and businesses were raided and hundreds were deported.
  • These raids failed to turn up anything big and were seen as a failure.
how were the palmer raids and the espionage and sedition acts similar

20

How were the Palmer Raids and the Espionage and Sedition Acts similar?
  • They both were sponsored by the government
  • Some people saw them as an infringement on civil rights
  • They imprisoned people
  • All of the above are correct
sacco and vanzetti a famous case
Sacco and Vanzetti: A Famous Case
  • In 1920, two Italian immigrants (and anarchists) were accused of murdering two factory guards
  • Witnesses said the criminals looked Italian
  • Sacco and Vanzetti were executed with no solid evidence
  • This is another example of the strong power of nativism.
the klan rises again
The Klan Rises Again:
  • By 1924, KKK membership reached 4.5 million – all white male and native born.
  • The Klan believed in keeping black “in their place” and driving foreign born people out of America.
  • They were a radical and violent group
  • D.W. Griffith’s film – A Birth of a Nation was critically acclaimed in 1915.
  • Link to article on the film

Click the picture for a link to the FULL video:

what was the main reason why the klan was able to rise in power during the mid 1920 s

20

What was the main reason why the Klan was able to rise in power during the mid 1920’s?
  • The American people needed leadership
  • America was in a period of nativism and isolationism
  • The Klan allowed for religious tolerance
  • Both 1 and 3 are correct
limiting immigration
Limiting Immigration:
  • “Keep America for Americans” became the new slogan.
  • Less unskilled labor jobs were needed.
  • American resentment towards immigration had reached an all time high.
the quota system
The Quota System:
  • From 1919-1921, the number of immigrants had grown almost 600% (from 141,000 to 805,000 people)
  • Congress decided that things needed to slow down.
  • They passed The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 – This system established the maximum number of people who could enter the US from each foreign country.
  • It worked – but the law prohibited Japanese immigrants and limited other particular groups (Roman Catholics and Jews)
  • This angered many groups
a time of labor unrest
A Time Of Labor Unrest:
  • 1919 saw more than 3,000 labor strikes – 4 million workers walked off the job.
  • Even the Boston Police went on strike (union issues)
  • 300,000 steel workers also walked off their jobs.
  • Coal Miners went on strike as well
  • John L. Lewis led a protest and got them a 27% raise!
  • America was losing faith in it’s economy and presidency.
did we meet our objectives
Did We Meet Our Objectives?
  • Can You:
  • 1. Summarize the reaction in the United States to the perceived threat of communism.
  • 2. Analyze the causes and effects of the quota system in the United States.
  • 3. Describe some of the postwar conflicts between labor and management.
section 2 objectives
Section 2: Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:
  • 1. Contrast Harding’s policy of “normalcy” with progressive era reforms.
  • 2. Identify scandals that plagued the Harding Administration.
section 2 the harding presidency
Section 2: The Harding Presidency

Main Idea: The Harding administration appealed to America’s desire for calm and peace after the war, but resulted in scandal.

Why it Matters Now: The government must guard against scandal and corruption to merit public trust.

Key Terms:

Fordney-McCumber Tariff

Ohio Gang

Teapot Dome Scandal

Key Names:

Warren G. Harding

Charles Evans Hughes

Albert B. Fall

warren g harding
Warren G. Harding:
  • Warren G. Harding took the presidency in 1921.
  • The public wanted things to go back to “normal”
  • Harding provided words of peace and calm
  • His judgment was not that great though. (we’ll soon find out)
harding struggles for peace
Harding Struggles For Peace:
  • After the war, countries around the world were hurting economically.
  • Harding decided to call the nations to meet in Washington D.C. to figure out what needed to be done.
  • Charles Evans Hughes (Sec. of State) – suggested that the five largest naval powers scrap their warships. (US, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy)
  • They agreed to disarm (for now)
why was charles evans hughes idea of scrapping the war ships bitter sweet

25

Why was Charles Evans Hughes’ idea of scrapping the war ships bitter sweet?
  • Because most countries did not have warships
  • Most countries wanted to keep their fleet of warships but needed the money to pay back war damages
  • The United States wasn’t willing to scrap their warships
  • Britain sided with Germany on this issue
high tariffs and reparations
High Tariffs and Reparations:
  • France and Britain owed $10 billion to America for the war.
  • Germany owed France and Britain for the damages
  • In 1922, the US adopted the Fordney-McCumber Tariff – raised taxes on US imports to 60%!
  • American investors loaned Germany $2.5 billion to pay back France and Britain. (Dawes Plan)
  • Then France and Britain paid the US (with interest)
  • Follow this? – The US was making money on the financial problems of others.

Charles Dawes

why might the dawes plan have created resentment among foreign nations

25

Why might the Dawes Plan have created resentment among foreign nations?
  • They felt that the United States was bullying foreign nations
  • The United States charged foreign nations high interest amounts on their borrowed money
  • The borrowed money would take a long time to be paid back
  • All of the above are true
harding s cabinet
Harding’s Cabinet:
  • Harding surrounded himself with good people (Charles Evans Hughes, Herbert Hoover, Andrew Mellon)
  • He also had some not so good ones.
  • The Ohio Gang – The President’s poker playing cronies that liked to cheat/bribe others (including the tax payers) out of money.
the teapot dome scandal
The Teapot Dome Scandal:
  • The government owned oil-rich land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming.
  • Teapot Dome Scandal – Albert B. Fall (US Navy Secretary) leased the land to private oil companies in return for a “cut” of the action.
  • He received more than $400,000 in loans, bonds, and cash.
  • He became the first American to be convicted of a felony while holding a cabinet post.
the teapot dome scandal showed that

25

The Teapot Dome Scandal showed that:
  • The President put his personal interests above the country’s
  • The American people were blind to the scandal
  • The American people could benefit from the success of this scandal
  • Both 1 and 2 are true
harding dies
Harding Dies:
  • “I have no trouble with my enemies…But my friends...they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor at night.”
  • On August 2, 1923, Harding died suddenly from either a heart attack or a stroke.
  • Calvin Coolidge assumed the presidency and the next year was elected.
did we meet our objectives1
Did we Meet our Objectives?
  • Can You?
  • 1. Contrast Harding’s policy of “normalcy” with progressive era reforms.
  • 2. Identify scandals that plagued the Harding Administration.
section 3 objectives
Section 3: Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:
  • 1. Summarize the impact of the automobile and other consumer goods on American life.
  • 2. Explain how prosperity affected different groups of Americans.
  • 3. Explain in what ways the country’s prosperity was superficial.
section 3 the business of america
Section 3: The Business Of America

Main Idea: Consumer goods fueled the business boom of the 1920’s as America’s standard of living soared.

Why it Matters Now: Business, technological, and social developments of the 1920’s launched the era of modern consumerism.

Key Terms:

Urban Sprawl

Installment Plan

Key Names:

Calvin Coolidge

american industries flourish
American Industries Flourish:
  • Calvin Coolidge focused hard on improving the American business.
  • He aimed to keep taxes down and business profits up.
  • We wanted to keep the government influence (in business) to a minimum and allow private companies to flourish.
  • Wages (and productivity) started to rise because of new technology.
the impact of the automobile part1
The Impact Of The Automobile: (Part1)
  • The automobile allowed rural families to travel to cities for shopping and entertainment.
  • Paved roads were created everywhere
  • Route 66 was created to connect Chicago with California.
  • Gasoline stations, repair shops, and shopping centers popped up all over the place
the impact of the automobile part12
The Impact Of The Automobile: (Part12)
  • People moved further away from their jobs – urban sprawl
  • The automobile was considered a status symbol as well
  • About 1/5 people had a car
  • Automobile factories sprung up in places like Detroit and Akron.
slide40
What invention flourished in the 20s, allowing rural dwellers to go to the city for shopping and entertainment?
  • New train lines
  • Taxi cabs
  • Automobile
  • Airplanes
urban sprawl is
Urban sprawl is…
  • The outward spreading of urban centers
  • The inclusion of rural areas into urban areas
  • More factories moving to cities
  • More people leaving rural areas for urban areas
the biggest impact on urban sprawl was
The biggest impact on urban sprawl was…
  • Electricity
  • The automobile
  • A growth in industry
  • A change in birthrate
the first non war use of the airplane was for
The first non-war use of the airplane was for…
  • Crop-dusting
  • Carrying mail
  • Carrying passengers
  • Weather forecasting
the practice of buying goods now and paying later was born in the twenties it was called the
The practice of buying goods now and paying later was born in the twenties. It was called the
  • Fake wealth plan
  • Homesteading plan
  • Advancement plan
  • Installment plan
what was one problem with the installment plan
What was one problem with the installment plan?
  • Economists feared spending would get out of hand.
  • It was a sign of fundamental weakness.
  • It allowed people to be shortsighted about the health of the economy.
  • All of the above
the young airplane industry
The Young Airplane Industry:
  • The US Post Office started the first mail carrying service. (by plane)
  • The first cargo and commercial airlines also began during this time.
  • Passengers started enjoying the speed of being able to travel by air. ($$)
america s standard of living soars
America’s Standard Of Living Soars:
  • 1920-1929 was a very prosperous time for America.
  • Americans owned around 40% of the world’s wealth.
  • The average American income rose more than 35% (from $522-$705)
  • People started spending there money freely.
electrical conveniences
Electrical Conveniences:
  • Gasoline powered most everything prior to this time period.
  • Now, electricity started to become much more efficient.
  • Electricity was able to be transmitted over long distances.
  • Privileged homes had electric irons, refrigerators, stoves, and toasters
a superficial prosperity
A Superficial Prosperity:
  • During the 1920’s most Americans believed this prosperity would go on forever.
  • National income was up
  • Most companies were making a fortune
  • The Stock Market was reaching unprecedented levels
producing great quantities of goods
Producing Great Quantities Of Goods:
  • As productivity increased, businesses expanded.
  • Companies merged, chain stores opened, farms produced excess crops.
  • Problems:
  • 1. Excess crops drove food prices down
  • 2. A huge income gap was being created between managers and workers
buying goods on credit
Buying Goods On Credit:
  • Big companies allowed consumers to buy things without paying for them in full.
  • They borrowed money from the banks at very low interest rates.
  • Installment Plans – buying goods over an extended period , without having to put down much money at the time of purchase.
parallel to today 1920 and 2005 2009
Parallel To Today: 1920 and 2005-2009
  • Zero Down home buying / 0% financing
  • Home Equity loans
  • During both periods of time, consumers were borrowing at extremely high levels.
  • So, what happened?
  • That’s what we’ll find out next chapter.
did we meet our objectives2
Did We Meet Our Objectives?
  • Can You:
  • 1. Summarize the impact of the automobile and other consumer goods on American life.
  • 2. Explain how prosperity affected different groups of Americans.
  • 3. Explain in what ways the country’s prosperity was superficial.
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