POLITICS OF THE ROARING TWENTIES. Chapter 12. AMERICANS STRUGGLE WITH POSTWAR ISSUES. Section 1. How did World War I affect America?. The end of WWI hurt the economy :. Returning soldiers took jobs away from women & minorities …OR… Returning soldiers faced unemployment themselves.
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Swept over America as people became suspicious of foreigners & wanted to pull away from world affairs
Americans saw Communism as a threat to their way of life
Communism is an economic & political system that supports government control over property.
1917, the Russian czar (NicholasII) stepped down & a group of revolutionaries called Bolsheviks took power.
Vladimir I. Lenin
Communist leaders wanted workers to seize political & economic power
They wanted to overthrow capitalism.
In the U.S., about 70,000 people joined the Communist Party.
Still, the ideas of the communists, or “Reds”, frightened many people
Many were sent out of the country w/out trial.
Two Italian immigrants who were arrested for robbery & murder in Massachusetts.
Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco (Dedham courthouse, 1923)
Denied committing any crime.
The case against them was weak & they were convicted anyway
JUDGE WEBSTER THAYER
Sacco and Vanzetti death masks
Death Watch in Union Square, New York
How did Americans show their Nativist feelings?
Immigrants at Ellis Island
Example was the Ku Klux Klan.
(Strikes were not allowed during World War I)
The cost of living had doubled since their last raise.
Mass. Governor Calvin Coolidge used force to put down the strike.
Workers demanded right to join unions.
1923, report revealed harsh conditions in steel mills.
Public opinion turned against steel companies & workers were given an 8 hour day….Still had no union.
John L. Lewis
Union membership declined from 5 million to 3.5 million.
Personal:• First Lady: Florence "Flossie" Mabel Kling Harding, Wife• Number of Children: 1• Education Level: College• School Attended: Ohio Central College• Religion: Baptist• Profession: Teacher, Insurance Salesman, Reporter, Publisher
President Warren G. Harding invited several major world powers.
Frank B. Kellogg, U.S. Secretary of State
64 nations signed that they giving up war as national policy
Tariff protected American business from foreign competition.
But the tariff made it impossible for Britain & France to sell their goods in the U.S.
So….the U.S. ended up getting paid w/its own $!
Some of his cabinet appointments caused problems…… They were part of the so-called “OHIOGANG”
He received $ & property in return.
He suddenly died in 1923 & Calvin Coolidge became president.
“The chief business of the American people is business”
By the late 1920’s, about 80% of all the cars in the world were in the U.S.
Cars ended isolation of rural families & gave young people & women more independence.
Cars also made it possible for people to live farther from their jobs.
Planes carried the nation’s mail.
Passenger service began.
How did the American household change?
In the 1920’s, electric power stretched beyond big cities to the suburbs.
Nursing in the 1920’s
Businesses used advertising to sell goods. They used Psychology…tried to use people’s desire for youth, beauty, & popularity to sell products.
They also formed organizations to promote business.
Most businesses seemed to make fortunes.
The stock market reached new heights.
What hidden problems did the economy have?