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Pengembangan Rencana strategis Dan Implikasi rencana IS/IT. Tinjauan. Peran IS/IT berubah dari dukungan menjadi enabler Konteks strategis sistem informasi Menjelajahi permintaan IS/TI R encana IS/IT dalam konteks Indonesia, di mana kita?. Tujuan.

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tinjauan
Tinjauan
  • Peran IS/IT berubah dari dukungan menjadi enabler
  • Konteks strategis sistem informasi
  • Menjelajahi permintaan IS/TI
  • Rencana IS/IT dalam konteks Indonesia,

di mana kita?

tujuan
Tujuan
  • Memahami bagaimana merumuskan rencana strategis
  • Memahami bagaimana merumuskan strategi bisnis
  • Memahami bagaimana merumuskan tujuan bisnis
  • Memahami implikasi dari rencana strategis untuk IS / IT rencana
agenda
Agenda
  • Perencanaan Strategis
  • Krangka Strategis
  • Mengembangkan strategi bisnis
  • Implementasi strategi bisnis
  • Implikasi strategi bisnis ke strategi IS/IT
  • Pandangan strategi berbasis sumber daya
apa perencanaan strategis
Apa perencanaan strategis ?

- Proses untuk menetapkan prioritas pada apa yang

anda akancapai di masa depan

  • Memaksa Anda untuk membuat pilihan tentangapa yang akan Anda lakukandan apa yang Anda tidak akan melakukan
  • Menarik seluruh organisasi bersama-sama sekitar

permainan tunggal rencana eksekusi

- Garis besar di mana sumber daya akan dapat teralokasi

pertanyaan dasar untuk ditanyakan
Pertanyaan Dasar untuk ditanyakan

- Dimana kita sekarang? (Penilaian)

- Dimana kita perlu? (Gap/perbedaan)

- Bagaimana kita akan menutup kesenjangan

(Rencana Strategis)

- Bagaimana kita akan memonitor kemajuan kita

(Balanced Scorecard)

rencana strategis model a b c d e
Rencana Strategis Model A B C D E

Bagaimana akan

Melakukannya

Bagaimana Mlakukannya

Dimana kita ingin menjadi

Dimana kita

Penilaian

Dasar

Komponen

spesifik

Evaluasi

  • Scan lingkungan
  • Situasi sekarang, sebelum, sesudah
  • Visi dan Misi
  • Pengukuran kinerja
  • Kinerja Manajemen
  • Latar belakang Informasi
  • Significant masalah
  • Nilai / Prinsip membimbing
  • Target / standar kinerja
  • Tinjauan kemjuan– Balanced Scorecard
  • Analisis situasi
  • Selaras/ sesuai dengan kemampuan
  • Tujuan utama
  • Inisiatif dan proyek
  • Tindakan koreksi
  • Tanggapan umpan balik– revisi rencana
  • Rencana tindakan
  • SWOT – Strength’s, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
  • Tujuan spesific
  • Kesenjangan
slide8

Model lain perencanaan strategis

Membuat arah

strategis

Menetapkan

Strategi

Mencapai

Strategi

Umpan balik

Rencana Strategis dari

Opsi terpilih

-Tentukan misi dan tujuan- Menilai situasi dan pilihan- Pilih opsi

Menerapkan

strategi

Strategis berpikir dan Peluangpengambilan keputusan

penilaian model s w o t

Mudah Memahami

  • Terapkan pada setiap tingkat organisasi
  • Perlu analitis dan Spesifik
  • Bersikaplahjujur ​​tentang kelemahan-kelemahan Anda
Penilaian Model : S W O T

Penilaian

Penilaian Internal: Asetorganisasi, sumber daya, orang, budaya, sistem, kemitraan, pemasok,. . .

PenilaianEksternal: Pasar, pesaing, tren sosial, teknologi, lingkungan regulasi, siklus ekonomi.

SWOT

SWOT

Kemungkinan kesalahan

Good Points

mengapa membuat dasar
Mengapa membuat Dasar ?

Dasar

  • Menempatkan segala sesuatu tentang organisasi

ke dalam kontekstunggal untuk perbandingan

dan perencanaan.

- Deskriptif tentang perusahaan serta keseluruhan

Lingkungan

- Menyertakan informasi tentang hubungan

pelanggan, pemasok, mitra.

- Format yang lebih disukai adalah Profil Organisasi

profil organisasi lingkungan operasi
Profil OrganisasiLINGKUNGAN OPERASI

Dasar

  • Produk dan Layanan - Pemasok, Pengiriman,

Saluran,Kontrak, Pengaturan,. . .

  • Budaya Organisasi - Hambatan, Kepemimpinan,

    Komunikasi, Keterpaduan. . . .

  • Produktivitas Tenaga Kerja – tingkat skill,

keragaman,  kontraktor , penuaan tenaga kerja,. .

-  Infrastruktur - Sistem, teknologi, fasilitas,

  • Peraturan - Produk / Layanan Peraturan, ISO

Standar Kualitas, Keselamatan, Lingkungan,. .

profil organisasi hubungan bisnis
Profil OrganisasiHUBUNGAN BISNIS

Dasar

  • Struktur Organisasi - Unit Usaha, Fungsi, Dewan,Lapisan Manajemen,. .
  • Hubungan Pelanggan - Persyaratan,Kepuasan, Loyalitas, Harapan,. . .
  • Rantai Nilai - Hubungan antara orang-orang dalam rantai nilai. . . .
  • Mitra Hubungan - Aliansi, jangka panjang

    pemasok, kemitraan pelanggan,. . .

profil organisasi katagori kunci kinerja
Profil OrganisasiKATAGORI KUNCI KINERJA

Dasar

Pelanggan

Produkdanlayanan

KeuanganHuman CapitalOperasionalEksternal (Regulatory Compliance, SosialTanggung jawab,. . . )

analisis kesenjangan
Analisis kesenjangan

Dasar

Tantangan / SWOT

Dasar / Profil org

Kesenjangan = dasarUntukperencanaanstrategisjangkapanjang

komponen utama rencana strategis

Strategic Plan

Action Plans

Evaluasi kemajuan

KomponenutamaRencanaStrategis

Komponen

Mission

Mengapakitasaatini

Vision

Apaygkitainginkan

Goals

Apa yg kita harus capai utk jadi sukses

Khususdinyatakandalamhasil

terukur

Tujuan

O1

O2

Rencana Tindakan untukmencapai Tujuan

Initiatives

AI3

AI2

AI1

Indikatordanindikator

keberhailan

Tindakan

M1

M2

M3

Target

T1

T1

T1

Tingkat kinerjaygdiinginkandanjadwal

pernyataan misi
Pernyataan Misi

Komponen

- Menangkap esensi dari mengapa organisas

ada - Siapa kami, apa yang kita lakukan

  • Menjelaskan kebutuhan dasar yang dibutuhkan
  • Mengungkapkan nilai-nilai inti organisasi
  • Harus singkat dan to the point
  • Mudah untuk memahami
  • Jika memungkinkan, cobalah untuk menyampaikan sifat unik dari organisasi anda dan perannya yang membedakan dari orang lain
contoh benar dan salah pernyataan misi
Contoh – BenardansalahPernyataanmisi

Komponen

NASA

To Explore the Universe and Search for Life and to Inspire the Next Generation of Explorers

Melakukan pekerjaan yang baik untuk mengekspresikan nilai-nilai inti organisasi. Juga menyampaikan kualitas yang unik tentang organisasi tersebut.

Walt Disney

Terlalu samar dan tidak jelas. Butuh informasi lebih jelas tentang apa yang membuat organisasi menjadi khusus.

To Make People Happy

slide18
Visi
  • Bagaimana organisasi ingin dianggap di masa depan

apa yang tampak seperti keberhasilan

  • Sebuah ekspresi keadaan akhir yang diinginkan
  • Tantangan setiap orang untuk meraih sesuatu

signifikan - menginspirasi masa depan yang menarik

- Memberikan fokus jangka panjang untuk seluruh organisasi

memandu prinsip dan nilai
Memandu Prinsip dan Nilai

- Setiap organisasi harus dipandu oleh seperangkat nilai-

nilai dan keyakinan

- Memberikan kerangka dasar untuk membuat keputusan –

bagian dari budaya organisasi

- Nilai sering berakar pada tema etis, seperti kejujuran,

kepercayaan, integritas, rasa hormat, kejujuran,. . . .

- Nilai harus berlaku di seluruhorganisasi

- Nilai mungkin cocok untuk yang terbaik tertentu

manajemen praktek - terbaik dalam hal kualitas,layanan pelanggan yang luar biasa, dll

examples of guiding principles and values
Examples of Guiding Principles and Values

Components

We obey the law and do not compromise moral or ethical principles – ever!

We expect to be measured by what we do, as well as what we say.

We treat everyone with respect and appreciate individual differences.

We carefully consider the impact of business decisions on our people and we

recognize exceptional contributions.

We are strategically entrepreneurial in the pursuit of excellence, encouraging original thought and its application, and willing to take risks based on sound business judgment.

We are committed to forging public and private partnerships that combine diverse strengths, skills and resources.

goals
Goals
  • Menjelaskan akhir kondisi masa depan - hasil yang diinginkan

yang mendukung misi dan visi.

  • Membentuk cara di depan dalam hal ditindaklanjuti.
  • Paling baik diterapkan di mana ada pilihan jelas tentangmasa depan.
  • Menempatkan fokus strategis ke dalam organisasi - spesifikkepemilikan tujuan harus diserahkan kepadaseseorang dalam organisasi.
  • Mungkin tidak bekerja dengan baik di mana hal-hal yang berubah cepat- Tujuan cenderung jangka panjang bagi lingkungan yang memiliki pilihan terbatas tentang masa depan.
mengembangkan goals
Mengembangkan Goals
  • Jenjang dari atas Rencana Strategis, Misi, Visi, prinsip membimbing.
  • Lihatlah analisis strategis Anda - SWOT,
  • Lingkungan Scan, Kinerja masa lalu, Kesenjangan.
  • Batasi sedikit kritis - seperti 5-8 gol.
  • Luas partisipasi dalam pengembangan tujuan:
  • Konsensus dari atas - beli-in di eksekusitingkat.
  • Harus mendorong tingkat yang lebih tinggi kinerja dan menutup kesenjangan kinerja kritis.
examples of goals
Examples of Goals

Components

Reorganize the entire organization for better responsiveness to customers

We will partner with other businesses, industry leaders, and government agencies in order to better meet the needs of stakeholders across the entire value stream.

Manage our resources with fiscal responsibility and efficiency through a single comprehensive process that is aligned to our strategic plan.

Improve the quality and accuracy of service support information provided to our internal customers.

Establish a means by which our decision making process is market and customer focus.

Maintain and enhance the physical conditions of our public facilities.

objectives
Objectives

Components

  • Relevant - directly supports the goal
  • Compels the organization into action
  • Specific enough so we can quantify and measure the results
  • Simple and easy to understand
  • Realistic and attainable
  • Conveys responsibility and ownership
  • Acceptable to those who must execute
  • May need several objectives to meet a goal
examples of objectives
Examples of Objectives

Components

Develop a customer intelligence database system to capture and analyze patterns in purchasing behavior across our product line.

Launch at least three value stream pilot projects to kick-off our transformation to a leaner organization.

Centralize the procurement process for improvements in enterprise-wide purchasing power.

Consolidate payable processing through a P-Card System over the next two years.

Monitor and address employee morale issues through an annual employee satisfaction survey across all business functions.

what are action plans

Down to Specifics

Objectives

Initiatives

Action Plans

What are Action Plans?
  • The Action Plan identifies the specific steps that will be taken to achieve the initiatives and strategic objectives – where the rubber meets the road
  • Each Initiative has a supporting Action Plan(s) attached to it
  • Action Plans are geared toward operations, procedures, and processes
  • They describe who does what, when it will be completed, and how the organization knows when steps are completed
  • Like Initiatives, Action Plans require the monitoring of progress on Objectives, for which measures are needed
criteria for good measures

Down to Specifics

Criteria for Good Measures

Integrity – Complete; useful; inclusive of several types of measure; designed to measure the most important activities of the organization

Reliable: Consistent

Accurate - Correct

Timely – Available when needed: designed to use and report data in a usable timeframe

Confidential and Secure: Free from inappropriate release or attack

examples of measurements lead indicators

Down to Specifics

Examples of MeasurementsLead Indicators
  • Average time to initiate customer contact => shorter time should lead to better customer service
  • Average response time to incident => below average response times should lead to increased effectiveness in dealing with incident
  • Facilities that meet facility quality A1 rating => should lead to improved operational readiness for meeting customer needs
targets

Down to Specifics

Targets
  • For each measurement, you should have at least one target
  • Targets should stretch the organization to higher levels of performance
  • Incremental improvements over current performance can be used to establish your targets
  • Targets put focus on your strategy
  • When you reach your targets, you have successfully executed your strategy
continuous feedback through the balanced scorecard

Evaluate

Continuous Feedbackthrough the Balanced Scorecard
  • Cascade and align from the top to create a Strategic Management System.
  • Use the Balanced Scorecard framework to organize and report actionable components.
  • Use the Scorecard for managing the execution of your strategy.
  • Scorecard “forces” you to look at different perspectives and take into account cause-effect relationships (lead and lag indicators)
  • Improves how you communicate your strategy – critical to execution.
evolution of strategic planning
Evolution of Strategic Planning

Effectiveness of

strategic decision

making

Well defined strategic

framework

Strategically focused

organization

Widespread strategic

thinking capability

Reinforcing management

processes

Supportive value system

and climate

Multi-year budgets

Gap analysis

Static allocation of

resources

Situation analysis and

competitive assessments

Evaluation of strategic

options

Dynamic allocation of

resources

Annual budgets

Functional focus

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

Financial Forecast-based Externally Strategic

planning planning oriented management

(meet budget) (predict the (think (create the

future) strategically) future)

strategic framework for strategic planning
Strategic Framework for Strategic Planning

External Environments

Economic Political Ecological

Technological Social Legal

Pressure

Groups

Values

Objectives Identify current Identify future Threats and

strategies strategies opportunities

Evaluate Analyze Evaluate

feedback internal strategies

resources

Monitor Implement Select

Strategies Strategies Strategies

Customers

Suppliers

Shareholders

Employees

Unions

Government

Public

Competitors

Customers

Suppliers

Shareholders

Employees

Unions

Public

Media

Financial Ins.

Stake

Holder

input to strategic planning
Input to Strategic Planning
  • External environments - sources of important signals to organizations
  • Pressure groups - demand recognition and rapid management response
  • Stakeholders - demand fair share of created wealth
  • Business planning is usually carried out for each strategic business unit
    • A unit that sells a distinct set of products or services, serve a specific set of customers, and competes with a well-defined set of competitors
definition of business strategy
Definition of Business Strategy
  • Definition of business strategy:
    • An integrated set of actions aimed at increasing the long-term well-being and strength of the organization relative to its competitors
technique to develop business strategy competitive forces in industry porter 1980
Technique to Develop Business Strategy: Competitive Forces in Industry (Porter, 1980)

Threat of new

entrants

Rivalry among

existing

competitors

Bargaining

power of

suppliers

Bargaining

power of

buyers

Threat of

substitute

product

factors affecting the impact of competitive forces
Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • New entrants
    • Capital requirements
    • Patents and specialists skill required
    • Distribution channels available
    • Achieved/required economies of scale and resultant cost advantages
    • Number and size of existing rivals and intensity of competition
    • Differentiation and brand establishment/loyalty
    • Access to raw materials/critical resources etc.

Business strategy: “how to discourage new entrants to come

into the business”

strategic choices factors affecting the impact of competitive forces
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • Substitute products/services
    • Customer awareness of needs and means of satisfaction
    • Customer sensitivity to value for money and ability to compare
    • Existing loyalty of customer—impact of “industry” promotion
    • Ability to differentiate products etc.

Business strategy: “how to create a loyal customers?”

strategic choices factors affecting the impact of competitive forces1
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • Competitive rivalry will be intensified by:
    • Market growth slow (or in decline)
    • Small number of similar sized competitors dominate
    • High fixed costs and/or high exit barriers for all rivals
    • Overcapacity and/or capacity increments are large units
    • Commodity-like, undifferentiated products.

Business strategy: “how to differentiate your products?”

strategic choices factors affecting the impact of competitive forces2
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • Buyers’ power will be increased by:
    • Concentrated/few buyers making high volume and/or high value of purchases
    • Low switching costs across suppliers
    • Price sensitive and many alternative sources of supply
    • Weak brand identities, products not differentiated
    • Buyers capable of backward integration due to low entry cost.

Business strategy: “how to make the buyers depend on your business”

strategic choices factors affecting the impact of competitive forces3
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • Suppliers’ power will be increased by:
    • Few suppliers—high switching costs for rivals and suppliers deal with many small customers
    • Potential substitute supplier/resources not easily available
    • Supplied goods make up large part of firm’s costs
    • Suppliers capable of forward integration or bypass to customers

Business strategy: “how to make the suppliers depend on your business”

generic competitive strategy
Generic Competitive Strategy

Low

Cost

Competitive

Advantage

Differen-

tiation

slide45

Exercise Your Thought

  • Explain the development processes of strategic planning?
  • What are the components of strategic planning?
  • How to develop business strategy?
  • How external forces influence business strategy and IS/IT strategies?
  • Business strategy imply IS/IT strategy?