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Academic Planning and Orderly Development of the 21 st Century Nigerian University. Professor Ignatius I. Uvah , PhD ( Cantab ) Agricultural, Management & Educational Consultant Maitama , Abuja, Nigeria. Summary. Outline of the presentation:

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Academic planning and orderly development of the 21 st century nigerian university

Academic Planning and Orderly Development of the 21st Century Nigerian University

Professor Ignatius I. Uvah, PhD (Cantab)

Agricultural, Management & Educational Consultant

Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria


Summary
Summary

  • Outline of the presentation:

    • Introduction: Conceptual considerations; Evolution of university education in Nigeria

    • Challenges for 21st Century Nigerian Universities: National; Institutional

    • What is being done now

    • What more to do

    • Role of Academic Planning

    • Conclusion

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Conceptual considerations what is a university
Conceptual Considerations: What is a University?

  • Definitions:

  • University:

    • An institution for post-secondary studies and training usually leading to the award of degrees; diplomas and certificates;

    • A place of education at the highest level, where degrees are given (Longmans Dictionary);

    • “an academic institution … for the award of degrees and other academic qualifications” NUC (1997)

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Conceptual considerations what is academic planning
Conceptual Considerations: What is Academic Planning?

  • Definitions cont’d:

  • Academic Planning:

    • “An interaction process in which institutional and academic unit goals, and the means for achieving goals are negotiated between faculty, administrators, students and other parties within and outside the university. Thus academic planning integrates concepts and activities from academic programme review, budgetary planning, and academic administration” - Larry R Jones; Univ. of British Colombia

    • “Academic planning occurs anytime a decision (is made) about what academic programs, degrees or research the institution will support ” – Society for College and University Planning, USA

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Conceptual considerations academic planning cont d
Conceptual Considerations: Academic Planning cont’d

  • Definitions cont’d:

  • Academic Planning:

    • “Academic Planning examines the importance of building a college or university academic plan alongside the institution's strategic plan” – Daniel James Rowley and Herbert Sherman

    • “The desirability of academic planning has increased; however, the meaning of academic planning remains imprecise” – Bruce Fuller, California Assembly

    • Academic Planning is the front end of Management; i.e. Planning is an integral part of management

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Evolution of university education in nigeria 1
Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 1

Federal Universities:

University education in Nigeria started with establishment of the University College, Ibadan in 1948 following the Elliot Commission recommendation of 1945.

Subsequently, the University of Nigeria was established in 1960.

In 1962, the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, ObafemiAwolowo University Ile-Ife and University of Lagos were established. - 5

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Evolution of university education in nigeria 2
Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 2

Federal Universities:

University of Benin was then established in 1970.

In 1975, the seven second generation universities were established at Jos, Calabar, PortHarcourt, Sokoto, Ilorin and Kano. - 13.

During the 1980s, the FGN converted its military training school (the NDA) to a University.

In 1980, the FGN established seven universities of Technology at Abeokuta, Makurdi, Akure, Bauchi, OwerriMinna and Yola. The first two were converted to universities of Agriculture in1985.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Evolution of university education in nigeria 3
Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 3

Federal Universities:

University of Abuja was established in 1988.

In the early 1990s, the Federal Government took over the state universities at Awka and Uyo and converted them to Federal universities.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Evolution of university education in nigeria 4
Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 4

Federal Universitiescont’d:

Later in 2007, FGN established Federal University of Petroleum Resources (FUPRE) at Effurun.

Recently, the FGN established nine more universities at Lokoja, Dutsin-Ma, Lafia, Dutse, Kashere, Wukari, Ndufu-Alike, Oye-Ekiti and Otuoke.

The FGN, about two months ago, converted the Police College at Wudil to a university.

Thus there are 37 Federal universities as at now.

Federal universities are often categorised by age into 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation institutions.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Evolution of university education in nigeria 41
Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 4

State Universities

The 1979 Constitution placed education on the concurrent legislative list. States could therefore create universities

In 1980, the first state university, RSUST, was established at Portharcourt

Subsequently, more state universities were established during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.

Nigeria now has 37 state universities.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Evolution of university education in nigeria 5
Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 5

Private Universities

The promulgation of Decree (now Act) 9 of 1993 made provision for the establishment of private Universities.

50 private universities have to date been issued licenses to operate.

Total Number of Nigerian Universities

Consequently, there is a total of 118 approved Universities in Nigeria.

In addition, there are 4 Inter-University Centres

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Purpose of planning
Purpose of Planning

  • Why Plan (in the context of universities)?

  • To ensure orderly development of individual universities and the university system; and

  • To ensure achievement of national and institutional objectives.

  • What are the challenges to orderly development of the universities?

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


National challenges
NationalChallenges

  • National Challenges for universities:

    • Access:

      • Carrying capacity (system-wide), Admission quota

      • Enrolments

    • Funding: Core provision (by proprietor)

    • Reward structure;

    • Quality & Relevance – Policy constraints; Curriculum

    • Environment & others – Aids; Globalisation.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Institutional challenges
Institutional Challenges

  • Institutional Challenges for universities:

    • Funding: IGR;

    • Carrying capacity: Student enrolment, Teachers, TSR, admission quota; and Infrastructure and facilities: Academic spaces; Municipal facilities; Learning resources; and ICT;

    • Governance – Leadership & tensions; Planning; Conditions of Service & Brain drain; accountability; Campus vices; Maintenance culture

    • Quality & Relevance – Programs and Curriculum;

    • Environment & others – Aids, ICT, Community relations.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Access
Access

  • Objective of Government is to provide adequate access to university education for those who desire it; as a vehicle for socio-economic transformation;

  • Although degree student enrolment in the Nigerian university system, which in 1948 was 104, is now well over 950,000, the system has been unable to cope with the demand for university education.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Funding for federal universities
Funding for Federal Universities

Trends

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Funding for federal universities billions
Funding for Federal Universities(₦billions)

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Funding issues
Funding Issues

  • Current challenges: Funding:

    • Federal Government provides a budget cap (envelope) based on projected earnings and not on the needs of the universities;

    • Federal universities are not allowed to charge tuition fees;

    • States often spread finances for their universities thin over multi-campus systems;

    • Consequently, many universities have budget provisions well below their needs.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Carrying capacity
Carrying Capacity

  • Student enrolment:

    • Over 950,000 degree students currently are enrolled.

  • Teachers:

    • Over 36,000 academics in Nigerian Universities currently

  • Teacher/student Ratios: The composite TSR of 26.4 is high and yet is not reflective of the atrocious STRs for some programmes at many of the universities.

  • Divided attention: Frequently, each academic staff teaches at three or more universities

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Infrastructure and other facilities
Infrastructure and other Facilities

  • Infrastructure and Facilities:

    • Inadequate classroom, lecture theatre, library, laboratory, workshop and studio spaces; poor electricity and water supply; poor telecommunications and ICT

    • Inadequate equipment; often insufficient; and sometimes obsolete

    • Tendency to enroll more students than infrastructure and facilities can support.

  • Learning Resources:

    • Dearth of Books and Journals; Lack of, or poor access to Internet resources

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Governance 1
Governance 1

  • Governance:

  • Succession is often acrimonious, rancorous & disorderly;

  • Frequent cases of tension among Managers

  • Poor management practices: Delegation; Finances

  • Poor planning; often no strategic plan; expired academic and physical plans

  • Poor Conditions of Service; thus Brain drain

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Governance 2
Governance 2

  • Governance:

  • Impunity: Indiscipline and Campus vices:

    • Admission racketeering, exam malpractice, marks-for-sale deals (sorting), plagiarism, sexual harassment, extortion through handouts; cultism, etc. often go unpunished

    • Staff truancy: Some academics give 2-3 lectures only for a 15-week semester & cover only a small fraction of the curriculum

    • Culture of inefficiency: Student registration; Transcripts

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Governance 3
Governance 3

  • Governance:

  • Reward Structure:

    • Uniform wage structure does not encourage productivity

  • Poor Maintenance Culture

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Quality and relevance
Quality and Relevance

  • Policy constraints:

    • Cumbersome curriculum approval process at national level;

    • Federal no-tuition-fee policy – impoverishes universities leading to inadequate resources for their programmes

  • Illegal ( & poorly provided) programmes and affiliations

  • Relevance: Curricula seek merely to meet national standards and are not solution-oriented.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Miscellaneous challenges
Miscellaneous Challenges

  • Environment and other challenges

    • ICT and Globalization

    • Irregular academic calendar

    • No or poor Industry-University Cooperation

    • Aids Pandemic: Loss of valuable human resources

    • Community relations: Encroachment on university lands; Poor outreach and community service provision

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Current interventions 1 regulation of universities
Current Interventions 1: Regulation of Universities

National Universities Commission

  • With 5 universities in 1962, FGN begin to experience challenges with coordination and regulation of these very complex institutions;

  • FGN therefore established NUC in 1962 as a unit in the Cabinet Office to ensure orderly development of universities in the country; NUC attained statutory status by Decree 1 of 1974.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Current interventions 2 orderly admissions
Current Interventions 2: Orderly Admissions

Joint Admissions and Matriculations Board

  • Universities (through CVC) experiencing waste of space from multiple admissions for the brighter candidates, requested FG to create a structure for coordination of university admissions;

  • Thus FG established JAMB to conduct entrance examinations and, in consultation with the universities, admit new entrants to the institutions.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Current interventions 3 roles
Current Interventions 3: Roles

  • Federal Government

    • Regulation of universities & coordination of admissions

    • Staff Motivation – periodic wage reviews/increases

    • Increased funding for universities

    • Improved quality of governing councils; stability

    • Established more universities - access

  • National Universities Commission:

    • Curriculum development for relevance – MAS (1989), BS (2001) and BMAS (2004)

    • Accreditation: UG, PG; Institutional

    • Regulation, Monitoring and Evaluation: New state & private universities; New programmes; etc.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Current interventions 4
Current Interventions 4

  • Industries

    • Advocacy & support for Public-Private-Partnerships: qualified success

    • Donations, Endowments,

    • Etc.

  • Universities:

    • Campaign against cultism (with assistance of FG);

    • Regulations against “student extortion” through handouts;

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Whither academic planning 1
Whither Academic Planning? 1

  • Role of Academic Planning: Advisory as part of Mgt.

  • Introduce Performance Audit:

    • Management to constitute a committee either led or resourced by academic planning.

      Committee to:

    • Agree targets and performance indicators with those to be assessed

    • Do quarterly, half-yearly or annual audits of units;

    • Get feedback from both assessors and the assessed units on effectiveness of audit assessment;

    • Advise Management on corrective measures.

  • Strategic Planning:

    • Do university strategic plan with broad participation of staff; key

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Whither academic planning 2
Whither Academic Planning? 2

  • Role of Academic Planning cont’d:

  • Hold academic staff accountable through Student assessment of their teachers:

    • Assessment at the end of courses taught and projects supervised

    • Develop formula for collating to produce an annual grade from assessments

  • Formalise sharing of the university’s academic staff with other institutions:

    • Develop regulations to guide those academics who wish to teach at universities other than their primary assignment university.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Whither academic planning 3
Whither Academic Planning? 3

  • Role of Academic Planning:

  • Promote multimedia equipped and ICT-enabled lecture theatres and halls:

    • Equip with PowerPoint presentation equipment; voice amplification equipment; etc.

  • Introduce Internal Efficiency Strategies:

    • Develop consensus & reduce duplication of effort between Education, on the one hand, and Humanities and Sciences, on the other.

    • Same for Medicine (and other science-based professional disciplines) and Science.

    • Introduce proven ICT-based student registration systems

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Whither academic planning 4
Whither Academic Planning? 4

  • Role of Academic Planning cont’d:

  • Succession:

    • Develop a well defined institutional succession strategy;

    • Do management training for mid-level managers.

  • Develop and implement a “Bill of rights and responsibilities” for staff and students.

  • Improved funding strategies:

    • Determine unit cost; base budgets in part on unit cost;

    • Other creative strategies next:

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Whither academic planning 5
Whither Academic Planning? 5

  • Creative fund generation strategies:

    • Small and medium scale business

    • Alumni contributions

    • Manufacturing

    • Rental of spaces and recreational facilities

    • Consultancy services

    • Marketing research results

    • University-industry partnerships

    • Cost sharing for municipal services

    • Parents Forum

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Multifarious challenges threaten the mission of universities; Planning can help bring about positive change;

  • Universities willing to reposition their institutions and embrace reforms, can achieve their missions;

  • Academic Planning functions as part of Management and must therefore play a key role in ensuring orderly development of the institutions and continual improvements in their processes, programs and projects.

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


Thank you for listening and god bless

Thank you for listening.And God bless

2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja


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