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Fish

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  1. Fish

  2. Ichthyology • The study of fish.

  3. Classification of Fish • Kingdom Animalia • Phylum Chordata • Subphylum Vertebrata

  4. 3 Classes of Fish • Class Agnatha • Class Chondrichthyes • Class Ostyeichthyes

  5. Class Agnatha • Jawless fish • Examples: lamprey and hagfish

  6. Lamprey

  7. Lamprey- Jawless

  8. Hagfish

  9. Class Chondrichthyes • Cartilage fish • Examples: Sharks and Rays

  10. Shark

  11. Shark

  12. Shark

  13. Jabber Jaws Shark

  14. Sting Ray

  15. R.I.P.

  16. Class Ostyeichthyes • Bony fish • Examples: Salmon, Carp, Catfish

  17. Carp

  18. Catfish

  19. Salmon

  20. Characteristics of Fish • Gills • Backbone (vertebrae) • Paired fins • Single loop circulation

  21. Fish Respiration • Water flows over gills as the fish swims-this water is flowing in the opposite direction of the flow of blood (countercurrent flow). • Oxygen diffuses from the water and into the blood.

  22. Fish Respiration • Gills are made of thousands of gill filaments.

  23. Fish Respiration • When a fish opens its mouth, it “swallows” water, water passes over the gills and then out the gill slits, which are covered by the fish’s operculum. • You can see the operculum opening and closing.

  24. Fish Circulation • The fish heart is a single loop circulation which has 2 chambers. • Blood flows into the gills, picks up oxygen, goes to the body and then returns to the heart.

  25. Maintaining Water Balance Homeostasis • Remember, salt sucks! • Salt water fish have a tendency to lose water. • Fresh water fish have a tendency to gain water • This is why you can’t put a saltwater fish in fresh water- it is not adapted to it.

  26. Maintaining Water BalanceHomeostasis • Kidney maintain homeostasis and water balance.

  27. Fish Reproduction • Most fish fertilize their eggs externally • Spawning- the process of fertilizing eggs (fish reproduction) • Fry- baby fish

  28. Types of Agnathans • Hagfish- ocean scavengers, not much is known of them.

  29. Hagfish

  30. Types of Agnathans • Hagfish- ocean scavengers, not much is known of them. • Lamprey- fresh and salt water, they are parasitic on other fish. Cartilage skeletons and circular (sucker like) mouths.

  31. Lamprey- Jawless

  32. Types of Cartilage Fish • Sharks • Adapted for predatory lifestyle • Pectoral fins do not move- increases speed and stability (like an airplane). • Cartilage skeletons • Teeth replaced frequently

  33. Types of Cartilage Fish • Sharks • Special scales that feel like sandpaper • No operculum (gill cover), sharks must keep moving to breath • Most have live births

  34. Shark

  35. Types of Cartilage Fish • Manta Rays and Sting Rays • Flexible pectoral fins and wide bodies • Most live in shallow water and are fairly docile • Mouth located on the underside, they prey on fish

  36. Manta Ray

  37. Sting Ray

  38. Types of Bony Fish (Osteichtyes) • Ray-finned • Majority of fish are this type. • Fins are supported by bony structures called rays

  39. Types of Bony Fish (Osteichtyes) • Lobe Finned Fishes • Fins consist of long, muscular lobe supported by a central core of bones • Thought to be ancestors of amphibians • Examples: Coelacanth and Lungfish

  40. Coelacanth

  41. Lungfish

  42. Fish Adaptations • Lateral Line System • Used to detect vibrations and orientate fish in the water. • A line of cells running down the side of the fish.

  43. Lateral Lines

  44. Fish Adaptations • Gill Cover (Operculum) • Cover gills. • Movement of operculum allows more water to be drawn in.

  45. Gill Cover

  46. Fish Adaptations • Swim Bladder • A gas filled sac that helps the fish maintain buoyancy. • Sharks do not have swim bladders, they sink when they stop swimming.

  47. Swim Bladder

  48. Fins • Dorsal fin- balance, staying upright • Caudal fin- forward movement • Pectoral fin- steering • Pelvic fin- steering • Anal fin- balance