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Blood and Lymph. Components of Blood Plasma Cells—RBC’s, WBC’s, Platelets Production and elimination of blood cells WBC’s move in and out of blood Role of lymph vessels Lymph organs. Components of blood—plasma. Plasma is water with dissolved solutes 46-63% of blood volume is plasma

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blood and lymph
Blood and Lymph
  • Components of Blood
    • Plasma
    • Cells—RBC’s, WBC’s, Platelets
  • Production and elimination of blood cells
  • WBC’s move in and out of blood
  • Role of lymph vessels
  • Lymph organs
components of blood plasma
Components of blood—plasma
  • Plasma is water with dissolved solutes
  • 46-63% of blood volume is plasma
  • Plasma is 92% water
  • Dissolved proteins make 7%
    • Albumins—for osmotic pressure, transport
    • Globulins—immune function, transport
    • Fibrinogen—clotting
    • Regulatory proteins/hormones
  • Other solutes make 1% including
    • salts/electrolytes—why important?
    • organic nutrients (what is included here?)
    • Organic wastes (from cellular respiration and cell breakdown)
slide3

Components of blood—cells

  • Red Blood Cells (RBC’s, erythrocytes): Full of Hemoglobin (Hb) for oxygen transport
  • Platelets: Cell pieces important in clotting
  • White Blood Cells (WBC’s, leukocytes): Immune function
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
red blood cells rbc fun facts
Red Blood Cells (RBC) Fun Facts

One drop of blood has 250 million RBC’s

Adult human has total of 25 trillion RBC’s—1/3 of all cells in the body

Each RBC lives about 120 days and travels 700 miles. Membrane rupture or other damage is noticed by phagocytes which then engulf the cell

One percent of RBC’s are replaced each day at a rate of about 3 million per second

Each RBC contains about 250 million Hb molecules

So, number of Hb molecules in body is about equal to stars in the universe

blood cell production
Blood Cell Production
  • RBC production/ only in red bone marrow
  • WBC’s begin development in bone marrow
    • Monocytes enter bloodstream and complete development into macrophage in peripheral tissues
    • Many Lymphoid Stem Cells complete development in lymph tissues (thymus, spleen, lymph nodes)
    • Some Band Cells complete development in bloodstream.
blood cell production focus on lymphocytes t cells and b cells
Blood Cell Production—focus on lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells)
  • Many Lymphoid Stem Cells complete development in lymph tissues (thymus, spleen, lymph nodes)
where is immune response needed
Where is immune response needed?
  • WBC’s move out of blood to fight infections—immune response
  • Some stay in the peripheral tissues as macrophages
  • Others move back into blood via lymph vessels (lymphocytes)
  • Fluid also leaks from capillaries and can be taken back into bloodstream through lymph vessels
lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic vessels
  • Open-ended lymph capillaries pick up interstitial fluid and also WBC’s
  • Gradual movement through flimsy lymph vessels takes cells to lymphoid organs
  • Eventually fluid returns to circulation through major lymph vessels
slide16

Return of lymph to circulatory system is at subclavian veins

  • Lymph travels through lymphoid organs:
  • lymph nodes/nodules, thymus, spleen
lymph nodes
Lymph nodes
  • At lymph nodes, lymph is “filtered” by presence of lymphocytes (B-cells).
  • Most foreign antigens are removed from lymph
  • Incoming (afferent lymph) is from lymph capillaries—picked up in tissues where infections/foreign invaders might be present
  • Outgoing (efferent) lymph is returned to ever larger lymph vessels and then back into blood circulation at subclavian veins
  • Presentation of antigens to initiate immune response can also happen in lymph nodes
  • Lymph nodes are clustered at sites where blood is returning from major regions of body, like axilla and groin
lymphoid nodules
Lymphoid nodules
  • Work much like lymph nodes, but closer to site of potential entry of foreign invaders
  • Tonsils, Wall of intestines
thymus
Thymus
  • Site of development of development and clonal selection of T-cells (more on this later)
  • Draped over mediastinum and great vessels
  • Much larger early in life through adolescence
  • In elder individuals, can be tiny, impossible to see
  • Produces hormones that stimulate lymphocyte maturation
spleen
Spleen
  • Left upper quadrant of abdominal cavity
  • Tears/ruptures easily on impact
  • Hard to repair, but can be removed with little affect—higher risk of bacterial infection, especially pneumococcal bacteria
  • Spleen is site of large concentration of lymphocytes that “filter” blood, much like lymph nodes work on lymph