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All these quotes are from Napoleon. What do they tell you about him? • “Power is my mistress. I have worked too hard at her conquest to allow anyone to take her away from me.” • “There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind." • “Impossible is a word to be found only in the dictionary of fools.” • "He that makes war without many mistakes has not made war very long." • “Death is nothing, but to live defeated and inglorious is to die daily.” • “Ten people who speak make more noise than ten thousand who are silent.” • “History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon”. • “I know when it is necessary, how to leave the skin of lion to take one of fox.” • “A man will fight harder for his interests than for his rights.” • “A throne is only a bench covered with velvet.” • “Religion is what keeps the poor from murdering the rich.”
The Rise and Fall of Napoleon’s Empire How does this Picture reflect the information you gathered from the quotes?
Church Representatives Empress Josephine
4 Effect on Empire Napoleon’s Mistakes HOME Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Continental System Weakening of France Peninsular War Great loss of life and prestige Russian invasion Loss of much of army continued . . .
Napoleon Empire Collapses3 Costly Mistakes • The Continental System (blockade) • Peninsular War (Guerillas) • Invasion of Russia (Scorched Earth Policy)
Continental System – blockade against Great Britain, destroy economy, make continental Europe more self-sufficient, Britain did it better… Peninsular War – French marched into Spain, took over govt., Spanish guerrilla forces attacked, French army severely weakened Napoleon establishes his relatives as kings in the countries he conquers. These people are not competent rulers. The citizens of these countries revolt. Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
D) Invasion of Russia – Meant to punish Czar for selling grain to England. 1812- 600,000 + French soldiers invade Russia Russians pull back and refuse to fight, practice scorched-earth policy, and burn Moscow down. Napoleon marched back to France in winter, lost his army to the cold. 20,000 walk out… “Swallows fell from the sky like stones, frozen in flight in the bitter cold…”
Napoleon’s Downfall • Major powers attacked: England and Prussia • 1814 – Napoleon surrendered at Liepzig, exiled to island of Elba • New king unpopular, Napoleon escaped Elba, returns to France a Hero for 100 days and built a new army in 1815 • Battle of Waterloo – Napoleon defeated by combined forces of Russia, Prussia, Austria Sweden and England • St. Helena – Exiled until his death in 1821
The Continental System • The British had recently become Europe’s greatest economic power since it had experienced the Industrial Revolution first. • British factories powered by newly developed steam engines produced in large scale textiles and all kinds of manufactured goods. • A huge fleet of merchant ships traded these low-cost goods for luxuries around the world. • Napoleon planned to hurt the British by cutting off trade and money in their pockets. • He wanted all the nations in European mainland to stop trading with Britain. • Any British merchant ship that tried to sell its wares in a European port would have its cargo seized. • This is what led to the War of 1812 between Britain and America, because America continued to trade with France.
The Continental System • If the plan worked, the British economy would crash. • Unemployed workers would rise up like the French Third Estate had and overthrow their British king. • At the very least, the British would be forced to sign a peace treaty favorable to the French. • This boycott was called the Continental System by Napoleon. • He forced the Spanish, Prussians, Austrians, and Russians to be part of the British boycott.
Continental System • To soothe Napoleon’s concerns and to help enforce the Continental System, Napoleon put his family members on the thrones of countries he had conquered. • Older brother Joseph made King of Naples and Sicily • Younger brother Louis made King of the Netherlands • Brother Jerome made King of Westphalia…a new kingdom of several German states created by Napoleon • His sister Elisa became Grand Duchess of Tuscany • But despite this, Napoleon could not seem to keep British goods out of the continent. • Merchants all over Europe ignored the blockade and secretly welcomed British ships into their ports. • Some of the worst offenders were Spain and Portugal, whose combined 1,600 miles of coastline were impossible to police. • This led to France deciding to invade Portugal from bases in Spain and forcing the Portugal family into flight in 1807.
Continental System(Economics) • With Britain safe from attack, Napoleon turned more energetically to economic warfare • In Nov 1806, he established the Continental System which sought to blockade the British Isles and close the ports of France and its satellites to ships coming from Britain or its colonies • The idea was to ruin Britain’s trade-based economy by eliminating its chief market
Continental System • Napoleon decided to attack the “nation of shopkeepers” by: • Starving Britain of money • Destroying British trade, particularly the re-export of colonial goods to Europe
The Continental System GOAL to isolate Britain and promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe. Berlin Decrees (1806) British ships were not allowed in European ports. No vessel coming directly from Britain or her colonies could enter a port under French control. “Order in Council” (1806) Britain proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the Continent. Confined Europe’s trade to neutral shipping. Britain controlled and taxed the neutral trade with Europe by making all vessels proceed via British ports. Milan Decree (1807) Napoleon proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the Continent. Any country obeying the British decrees would be punished by the French. These edicts eventually led to the United States declaring war on Britain WAR OF 1812.
Continental System (Economics) • Enforcing the Continental System proved difficult because: • Europeans had become reliant on cheap British goods • The British worked around the system through smuggling and bribery • The system hurt the French too
Effects of Continental System • Worth of British exports declined by 5 million pounds in 2 years. • Liverpool’s imports of raw cotton dropped from 143,000 sacks in 1807 to 23,000 sacks in 1808 • In 1808, grain imports fell to 5% of their 1807 level • Corn prices rose from 66 shillings a quarter in 1807 to 94 shillings a quarter in 1808 • Reduced the demand for manufactured goods which led to low wages, shorter working times, and unemployment
Effects of the Continental System Continued • In 1810, 5 British companies went bankrupt. • Strikes broke out in Britain. • By 1811, British exports to Europe fell to 20% of the 1810 level. • Gold payments to Europe doubled between 1808-1811 • There were three bad harvests in a row in 1809, 1810, and 1811. This led to starvation. • The British pound lost value and inflation spiked. • A three day week was introduced in Lancashire.
Effects of Continental System Continued • Napoleon failed to take full advantage of Britain’s partial economic collapse and allowed European grain to be sold in Britain for gold. • Trade restrictions were lifted and smuggling began.
Effects of the Continental System on France • French custom revenue fell • European nations were starved for British colonial goods of coffee, sugar, tobacco, cocoa, and cotton textiles • Imported goods were addictive luxuries and people resented the French for depriving them of these luxuries • Replacement items of sugar beets and linen were not tolerated. • The British blockade of European ports in retaliation led to a scarcity of goods.
Reasons for the Failure of the Continental System • British Counter-Blockade of continental Europe • Insufficient alternative means of transportation (i.e. alternatives to sea routes) • Infant industries of mainland Europe unable to replace the previous supply of goods from Britain • Britain made up for lost trade with Europe by finding new markets around the world • British monopoly of many “luxury goods” • Smuggling
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Peninsular War(Guerrilla War) • Napoleon’s efforts to enforce the Continental System eventually led him into battle on the Iberian Peninsula and later Russia • By the fall of 1807, all the nations of continental Europe except Portugal and Sweden had joined the Continental System • Napoleon arranged with the king of Spain to attack Portugal through Spain
The Spanish Ulcer: The Penisular War • Spring 1808: Napoleon decided to crack down on Spain • Invited the entire royal family of Spain to Paris for a visit and when they arrived, placed them under arrest • He then made his brother Joseph trade his Italian crowns to become the King of Spain • The Spanish people did not welcome the foreign Bonapartes as their rulers…NATIONALISM • Instead they rose up in rebellion
The Spanish Ulcer • For the first time in his military career, Napoleon seemed overmatched. • The Spanish didn’t fight the kind of organized battles he had learned to dominate. • Instead they used GUERRILLA WARFARE---ambushing small parties of French troops whenever and wherever they could • They slit drunken soldiers throats, poisoned food and wells, etc.. • They refused to show themselves yet seemed to turn up everywhere
The Spanish Ulcer • Napoleon watched his fearsome French army grow hungry and more fearful each day losing 100 men a day in Spain. • But Napoleon’s ego had grown too big to realize his mistake. He now believed that great leaders should “never retreat, never retract…never admit a mistake.” • The Penisular War, or “The Spanish Ulcer” as Napoleon called it lingered on and drained wealth, strength, and hope from Napoleon’s followers.
Spanish or Penisular Campaign • Conquered Portugal in 1807; Spain in 1808. • Spanish populace was hostile. • Guerilla warfare • Locals provide intelligence. • Difficult to distinguish guerillas from civilians. • French (conventional) tactics vs. Spanish (guerilla) strategy • Surfaces and gaps? • Entry of British regular forces eventually tipped the scales in favor of the Spaniards.
Peninsular Campaign: 1807-1810 ContinentalSystem Spain Portugal 1806: France • Portugal did not comply with the Continental System. • France wanted Spain’s support to invade Portugal. • Spain refused, so Napoleon invaded Spain as well! • By 1807, Napoleon had become determined to crush Britain and make his Continental System effective. • He set out to conquer Portugal because it was Britain’s oldest ally and trading partner.
Peninsular Campaign (ctd.) • By the Convention of Fontainbleu in November 1807, the Spanish government agreed to allow a French army to pass through Spain to attack Portugal; in return, most of the conquered Portugal would become Spanish territory. • Marshal Junot and 20,000 troops were sent to capture Lisbon. • The Portuguese royal family decided not to stay in their country and left immediately for their colony of Brazil the day before the French arrived in Lisbon. • It took only the 1,500 French soldiers that were left of Junot’s force to accept the surrender of Portugal.
Peninsular Campaign (ctd.) • It was unlikely that the Spanish would implement the Continental System effectively. • Charles IV was aging and ineffectual; his wife, Queen Maria Luisa was a vicious adulteress with the First Minister, Godoy. • Most Spaniards hated the three of them. • Napoleon summoned the Royal Family to meet him in Bayonne where he persuaded them to hand over their claim to the Spanish crown. • Napoleon then installed his brother Joseph as King of Spain. • The result of this action was riots in Madrid and risings in each of the Spanish provinces that were led by the landed magnates and local clergy.
Peninsular War (Guerrilla War) • Napoleon occupied Portugal easily but he was also becoming wary of Spain’s loyalty so he sent 127,000 troops into northern Spain and later forced the king and his son to abdicate in his favor • Napoleon now controlled almost the entire European continent Napoleon made his brother Joseph the king of Spain
Peninsular War (Guerrilla War) • A resistance movement erupted in Spain and the British also sent an expeditionary force to Portugal • Sir Arthur Wellesley (the future Duke of Wellington) commanded the British forces and compelled the French to evacuate Portugal • In Spain Napoleon grew increasingly frustrated why his traditional methods that had brought victory elsewhere were unable to crush what had become a “people’s war” led by clerics and minor government officials The Duke of Wellington
Peninsular Campaign (ctd.) • Companies of Spanish volunteers were formed and any Frenchmen and/or supporters of the French regime were massacred. • Napoleon had a poor opinion of the fighting capacity of the Spaniards and also he believed that a “whiff of grape-shot” would quell the fiercest of rioters when opposed by disciplined soldiery. • Consequently, he underestimated the seriousness of the Spanish revolt. • His troops were already stationed in the north-east and around Madrid, and he contented himself with sending and army under General Duport to deal with the disturbances in the west and south.
Peninsular Campaign (ct’d.) • Duport soon found himself in difficulties, short of food amid a hostile population, with enemy forces gathering in ever increasing numbers. • Afraid to admit his difficulties to Napoleon, he delayed his retreat until he was surrounded and forced to surrender with 20,000 men at Baylen in July, 1808.
“The Spanish Ulcer” • Napoleon tricked the Spanish king and prince to come to France, where he imprisoned them. • He proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain. • He stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. • On May 2, 1808 [Dos de Mayo] the Spanish rose up in rebellion. • Fr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo].
“The Spanish Ulcer” • Napoleon now poured 50, 000 troops into Spain over the next few years. • But, the Fr generals still had trouble subduing the Spanish population. • The British viewed this uprising as an opportunity to weaken Napoleon. • They moved an army into Portugal to protect that country and to aid the Spanish guerillas. • After 5 long years of savage fighting, Fr troops were finally pushed back across the Pyrennes Mountains out of Spain. The Surrender of MadridMay, 1809by Goya
Next Political Cartoon on Spanish Conflict • In this apocalyptical scene, the figure of Spain (r.) attacks Corsica (l.), here represented as a seven-headed beast marked with the number "666." • The crowns are inscribed Naples, Austria, Holland, Denmark, Russia, Prussia and France, indicating the territories at war with Spain. • As Spain severs Napoleon's head from the beast's body, the crowns topple and fall towards the allegorical figure of Hope (center), who runs to catch the crowns in her apron. • To the far left, a city, as well as the surrounding countryside, is obscured by flames. • At the right of the sheet, help arrives by ship above which is inscribed "Admiral Purvis." • Rowlandson incorporates other apocalyptical references into the title of the sheet outside the bottom border of the frame. • Underneath Napoleon's name, spelled phonetically as "NapoleanBounaparte," the artist records the correspondence between the letters and their sequence in the alphabet. The sum of these letters, "666," is provided for the viewer.
Peninsular War (Guerrilla War) • The guerrilla war in Spain became a “bleeding ulcer” for Napoleon that eventually claimed the lives of some 300,000 Frenchmen • Napoleon misunderstood the nature of the war and was never able to deal with both the guerrillas and Wellesley simultaneously • So long as the British remained in Portugal, the Spanish guerrillas had hope and a source of supplies • On June 21, 1813 Wellesley finally defeated the French at Vitoria and forced them out of Spain • The loss of the Peninsular War was a major factor in the eventual collapse of Napoleon’s Empire
Napoleon’s Family Rules! • Jerome Bonaparte King of Westphalia. • Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain • Louise Bonaparte King of Holland • Pauline Bonaparte Princess of Italy • Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles (son) King of Rome • Elisa Bonaparte Grand Duchess of Tuscany • Caroline Bonaparte Queen of Naples
Invasion of Russia • Too many rulers turned a blind eye to smugglers of low-priced British goods • Tsar Alexander was convinced that the price of friendship with France was too high, because Russia was a poor country who needed Britain’s help to modernize • On December 31, 1810, Tsar Alexander announced Russia would resume trade with Britain • Napoleon was furious, and refused to acknowledge that he could not control the entire European continent.
Invasion of Russia • In the past, Napoleon had always won his battles by moving faster and acting more boldly than his opponents. • But Napoleon was invading Russia with an army of over 600, 000 soldiers that could not do anything quickly. • The daily ration of food alone required 6,000 wagons. • Each of these wagons needed horses to pull it. • So did the heavy cannons of the artillery. • A little rain and the entire army got stuck in mud for days.
Invasion of Russia • According to Napoleon: “…the great proof of madness is the disproportion of one’s designs to one’s means.” • This meant that anyone who tried to execute a widely ambitious plan without the resources needed to succeed was insane. But this was exactly what Napoleon was doing with the Russian invasion! • Napoleon initially set aside a single month for his invasion of Russia. • He was certain the war was his to win if he could just maneuver the Russian army into a decisive battle. • But the Russians refused to fight.
Invasion of Russia • The invasion became what one historian describes as…”the longest traffic jam in European history.” • Napoleon finally caught up with the Russians on September 7, 1812 at the Battle of Borodino…two days march from Moscow. • The Russians suffered 40,000 casualties in a single day, but still refused to surrender. • Napoleon said, “These Russians let themselves be killed as if they were not men but mere machines.” • The next morning, the French woke to find that the Russians had retreated and stolen way in the night and also taking with them all the remaining French supplies.