Biochemistry. Atoms - tiny and compose all matter. Niles Bohr created idea that all atoms had an outer cloud of tiny subatomic particles called electrons that have a neg. charge. At centre is a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons.
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Allows for a polar “head” and a non-polar “tail”
Creates a phospholipidbilayer
Channel Proteins – work the same way however they transport ions. Channel has to have a different charge than ion being moved.
The system that allows this to occur is an integral protein called a pump
Chemical Fundamentals (p. 24 - 55)
1. Glycerol - 3 carbon alcohol with each carbon bearing a hydroxyl (OH) group, backbone to which three fatty acids are attached
2. Fatty Acids - long hydrocarbons ending in carboxyl (COOH)
if there are three fatty acids attached to the backbone the resulting structure is a triglyceride
if a fat has more than one double bond it is said to be polyunsaturated and have low melting points due to the fat molecules not being closely aligned
Nitrogenous bases broken down into purines and pyrimidines (fig. 42, p.53)
Metabolism (p. 58 - 67)
=1 cal is heat required to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree
1. 5 carbon sugar = backbone to which other two are attached
2. Adenine = two carbon-nitrogen rings
3. Triphosphate group = three phosphates linked together in a chain via high energy covalent bonds (linkage occurs due to a process called phosphorylation).
Na + Cl Na+ + Cl-
Enzymes (pg. 69-78)