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Biochemistry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Biochemistry. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. All the chemical reactions in the body; or acquiring and using energy Digestion: catabolism (breakdown) of nutrients in the GI tract for absorption ATP production for cellular energy Anabolism to build cellular structures

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  • All the chemical reactions in the body; or acquiring and using energy
  • Digestion: catabolism (breakdown) of nutrients in the GI tract for absorption
  • ATP production for cellular energy
    • Anabolism to build cellular structures
    • Catabolism to recycle macromolecules
    • Movement
  • Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are broken down into their simplest units by digestive enzymes
    • Carbohydrates to glucose by amylase, maltase, lactase, sucrase
    • Lipids to monoglycerides + fatty acids by lipase; transported in chylomicrons; changed in the cells to glycerol + fatty acids
    • Proteins to amino acids by pepsin, trypsin & others
atp production
ATP Production
  • Glycolysis: breaking down glucose to produce a net of 2 ATP + pyruvate
  • Aerobic or anaerobic respiration
    • Anaerobic respiration when oxygen is lacking produces lactate (lactic acid) which is sent to the liver for processing
    • Aerobic respiration continues in the mitochondria with the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
important coenzymes
Important Coenzymes
  • Energy carriers: NAD+ and FAD bind hydrogens with high energy electrons and transport them to other reactions
    • NAD+ + 2H NADH + H+ (has energy)
    • FAD + 2H FADH2 (has energy)
  • Coenzyme A activates the acetyl group in pyruvate to acetyl CoA needed for the citric acid cycle
  • 2 ATP are used to start the breakdown of 6-carbon glucose to two 3-carbon glyceraldehyde phosphates
  • Glyceraldehyde phosphate is converted to 4 ATP plus hydrogens that are given to NAD+
metabolism of pyruvate
Metabolism of Pyruvate
  • With oxygen present, NADH and CoA react with pyruvate to form acetyl CoA
  • With a lack of oxygen, NADH is used to convert pyruvate to lactate
  • Mitochondria, double-membrane organelles in the cell, converts pyrvate to acetyl CoA and then release energy from acetyl CoA to make 36 ATP
    • Cristae: folds in the inner membrane
    • Matrix: area inside the inner membrane where the citric acid cycle occurs
    • Intermembrane space: between the two membranes where H+ are concentrated
    • Inner membrane has protein enzymes for the electron transport chain
citric acid cycle
Citric Acid Cycle
  • Cyclic pathway of chemical reactions that releases energy to NADH and FADH2 and forms one GTP (converts to ATP)
    • Part one begins when a 2-carbon acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon oxaloacetate to form citrate (citric acid)
    • Part one removes 2 carbons
    • Part two converts the resulting 4-carbon compound back to oxaloacetate to begin another cycle
electron transport chain
Electron Transport Chain
  • Enzymes use the energy in the high-energy electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 to transport H+ to the intermembrane space
  • Concentrated H+ pass quickly through a H+ channel associated with ATPase to produce ATP
  • H+ inthe matrix must combine with O2 to prevent a rapid drop in pH which would prevent further metaoblism
  • Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins can be used for energy as well as for building cellular structures
  • Carbohydrates glucose for glycolysis
    • Extra glucose is stored as glycogen by the liver and muscle cells for later use
  • Lipids fatty acids and glycerol
    • Glycerol is converted in glyceraldehyde phosphate and enters the glycolysis pathway
    • Fatty acids are converted into acetyl CoA for the citric acid cycle
  • Proteins amino acids
    • Deamination removes the amine group
    • Deaminated molecules are converted into various reactants in the citric acid cycle
  • When the body uses fats and amino acids for energy, an excess of acetyl CoA can accumulate in the liver
  • Excessive acetyl CoA combines to form ketone bodies
    • Ketone bodies can be sent to the cells for a small amount of ATP production
    • Ketosis: when the ketone bodies are not completely metabolized
      • Leads to acidosis (low blood pH) which causes rapid, labored breathing